According to william Shaufeli and bakker (2003 employee engagement can be described by the following three elements: ' Vigour. Individuals that score high on vigour have high levels of enthusiasm, stamina and energy. The individuals derive a sense of significance from their work. They also feel enthusiastic, proud, inspired and challenged. Individuals that score high on this are happily engrossed in their work, they feel immersed by their work and have difficulties detaching from it because they get carried away. As a consequence, everything else around them is forgotten and time seems to fly. Given all the above definitions, this researcher concludes that employee engagement is about employees who are passionate and devoted to their work. These individuals also have strong interpersonal relations at work and a strong sense of loyalty to the company they work for. Employees who experience high levels of engagement would not think twice to go beyond the duties stipulated in their employment contract.
This refers to the emotional connection that the employee has with the organisation. These employees are loyal to the organisation; they have a sense of belonging and feel very proud to be working for the organisation. ' An act component (behavioural dimension). Employees will behave in ways that will support the organisation on its way to success. They will be willing to stay with the organisation regardless of other opportunities that may emerge. They will also give more than what essay is expected of them to ensure that the company reaches its goals. According to markos and Sridevi (2010,.90 the gallup organisation defines employee engagement as; 'the involvement with and enthusiasm for work'.
Attention refers to 'cognitive availability and the amount of time one spends thinking about a role.' Absorption refers to 'being engrossed in a role and refers to the intensity of one's focus on a role.'. Perrin's Global Workforce Study (2003,.1) defines employee engagement as an 'employees' willingness and ability to help their company succeed, largely by providing discretionary effort on a sustainable basis.' This study revealed that engagement is influenced by many factors which include rational and emotional factors. Robinson, perryman hayday (2004,.9) define employee engagement as: 'a positive attitude held by the employee towards the organisation and its value. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of organisation. The organisation must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee.'. According to melcrum (2005 employee engagement consists of three components: ' A think component (cognitive dimension). This refers to the intellectual connection that the employee has with the organisation and how strongly they believe in and support the main goals and objectives of the organisation. ' A feel component (emotional dimension).
Employee, essay - 571 Words
According to letter podsakoff. (1990) engaged employees are committed to their job. They feel inspired, motivated and proud of what they are doing. These individuals will give a hundred percent even when they are faced with difficulties. According to them it is clear that an employee is engaged in his job when he connects physically, cognitively and emotionally when he is executing the task at hand. This view is supported by Stander and Rothman (2010) who state that such employees have positive and strong interpersonal relations at work. Markos and Sridevi (2010,.90) report that engagement is about, 'passion and commitment ' the willingness to invest oneself and expand one's discretionary effort to help the employer succeed, which is beyond the simple satisfaction with the employment arrangement or basic loyalty to the employer.
Coetzee schreuder (2010) state that engaged employees can increase performance by 20 percent and they are also less likely to leave the organisation. Engaged employees will put a lot of effort into their work because they can identify with. Organisations today expect their employees to be engaged, committed, proactive, take responsibility for self-development in their own hands and who are dedicated to high quality performance and standards (Rothmann rothmann, 2010). 3.4 defining employee engagement, lately, work engagement has become a well-known construct to both practitioners and academics (Christian, garza slaughter, 2011). Although it might be a construct that is regularly used in practice, defining it remains a challenge (Saks, 2006). Kahn (1990,.694) defines personal engagement as 'the harnessing of organisation members' selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.' kahn (1990) thus meant that engagement is when an individual is psychologically present when. Rothbard (2001,.656) also defines engagement as psychological presence, but he brings in two new elements: attention and absorption.
These three groups are illustrated in Figure. Figure 2: Engagement Experiences. Source: Adapted from Hewitt,. (2012) 2012 Trends in global employee engagement. Aon Hewitt Engagement.0 Report.
According to Thomas (2000,. 9) 'we are now at the point where the biggest gains will come from systematically improving intrinsic rewards ' making the work itself more fulfilling and energising so that workers don't want to leave'. Grensing-Pophal (2002) argues that today's workers are well educated, less loyal to one organisation, not interested in organisations with autocratic and hierarchal types of leadership. They are much more concerned with self-development and meeting their own individual needs. Employees of the twenty-first century are very confident that they have the necessary skills to compete in the workplace. They know what they want and what they need and are therefore much more demanding about what they expect from their work experience. It has become a necessity for management to implement strategies that will keep their workforce actively engaged. Boverie and Kroth (2001,.1) suggest that, 'there has never been a more important time for leaders to develop working environments that are humane, challenging and rewarding. There has never been a more important time for leaders to create places where individuals come to work each day, charged up and excited about the work they are asked to do, places where people are passionate about their work.'.
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22) 'Organisations that honour and use all four dimensions of an employee's nature will inspire their people to volunteer their highest talents and contributions'. Boverie and Kroth (2001,.3) support this view saying that 'finding work that is meaningful and enjoyable leads to mental, physical, spiritual and emotional health'. According to hewit (2012 engagement is the measure of an employee's emotional and intellectual commitment to their organisation and its success, in other words, a strange heart and mind philosophy. He views engagement as an outcome of the organisational experiences of an employee. These experiences are characterised by behaviours that are grouped into three groups: say, stay and strive. Engaged employees only have positive things to say about their job, their employer and their organisation. They are more than willing to tell others about their positive experiences in order to convince candidates to join the company. These individuals are more likely to be emotionally attached to the organisation and will stay with the organisation for a long time. Engaged employees will do much more than what is expected of them and are willing to be flexible in order to ensure the company's success (Hewit, 2012).
The rationale factors consist of the resources, support and tools that are available to the individual in order for him to do his job properly. According to kahn (1990) and may, gilson harter (2004 in order for the human spirit to flourish in its job, it must be engaged cognitively (employee's beliefs about his or her place of work, leaders and working conditions physically (physical energy used by the employee. (2002) classified three dimensions of employee engagement, namely vigour, dedication and absorption. According to kahn (1990) these three dimensions overlap with his: cognitive (absorption physical (vigour emotional (dedication). 21) claims that, 'the fundamental reality is that human beings are not things needing to be motivated and controlled; they are four-dimensional ' body, mind, heart and spirit'. He claims that employees decide how ralph much of themselves they want to give at their work. The degree of self-investment will depend on how they are treated at work and how much opportunity they will have to make most of the four parts of their nature. According to covey (2004,.
by the type of task a person must carry out daily, the role he must fulfil and his interactions at work. Luthans (2008) stated that individuals find their jobs meaningful if they perceive their jobs as important, worthwhile and significant. This component was influenced by interpersonal relationships, group and intergroup dynamics, management style and organisational norms (Kahn, 1990). Luthans (2008) found that individuals have the need to feel secure enough to give their personal input without feeling that their career, status or image will be put in jeopardy. This is influenced by the depletion of emotional and physical energy as well as individual insecurity and outside lives (Kahn, 1990). Luthans (2008) argues that individuals are positive that there will be more than enough cognitive, physical and emotional resources available to them. Perrin (2003) states that emotional and rational factors are of utmost importance to keep an employee engaged. The emotional factors consist of the sense of mission, pride and passion for what they are doing.
Many individuals also use work to define who they are. Work is thus the perfect place to engage them and motivate them to reach their goals and provide meaning (Van Zyl, deacon hippie rothmann, 2010). According to luthans and Peterson (2002 employee engagement might not be the general cure for all the problems that organisations face daily, but implementing engagement strategies can help with overall organisational effectiveness as well as creating personal and career development opportunities for employees. 3.3 conceptualising employee engagement, according to perrin (2003 employee engagement is a never-ending process. The core ingredients of employee engagement are to provide an individual with an environment where he will have a meaningful and emotionally enriching work experience. Engagement is not about keeping people happy and rewarding them for the work that they have done. It is something much deeper (Perrin, 2003). Kahn (1990) was the first person to use the term personal engagement. He believed that employees use different physical, emotional and cognitive levels of themselves in their work performance daily.
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3.1 introduction, in this chapter the construct of wallpaper employee engagement is discussed. Firstly, a background on employee engagement is given after which employee engagement is conceptualised and defined. The types and drivers of employee engagement also receive attention after which the difference between employee engagement and similar constructs is clarified. The chapter concludes with the consequences of employee engagement. 3.2 background, employers all agree that the business world today is in dire need of a more competent and productive workforce. They are constantly looking for new ways to ensure that the organisation will stay ahead of competition. Employers have now come to the realisation that this goal can be achieved if they shift their focus on employee engagement (Markos sridevi, 2010). Individuals spend more than a third of their lives and more than half of their days at work. It is thus clear that work is at the core of each individual's existence.