If they are not twist listed in the lab manual, read the lab procedure and figure out from the procedure what the objectives of the lab are. Because objectives are activities, be sure to list them as such: to measure, to analyze, to determine something. What is the overall purpose of the lab? Briefly describe how what you are being asked to do in the lab (the objectives) will help you learn about the lab's scientific concept(s). In other words, show the link between your response to question 2 (what you will do in the lab) to your response to question 1 (what you are supposed to be learning about by doing the lab). The purpose of the lab is to learn something about the scientific concept the lab is about. This is where you make the all-important link between what you are doing and what you are learning. For example, if the scientific concept is photosynthesis, how will measuring respiration rates help you understand photosynthesis? This is the kind of question you need to ask yourself.
Don't try to make it pretty; just write. Get as much down as you can. Because the essay point of the lab is to learn about the scientific concept, it's important to state what you already know about. What are the objectives for this lab? Describe the specific actions you are being asked to perform in the lab, such as measure something, analyze something, test something, etc. Objectives are the activities you are being asked to do in order to complete the lab experiment. Often the objectives are listed in the lab manual. You can list the objectives or write them in a paragraph.
In fact, you may need to read it more than once to get a good grasp. Next, answer the following questions about the lab:. What scientific concept(s) is this lab about? Identify the scientific concept(s) (principle, theory, law) of the lab and write what you know about the concept(s) from the lab manual, textbook, class notes, handouts, etc. Most science labs are designed to help you learn about a scientific concept. If you are having trouble identifying the scientific concept this lab is about, check the title of the lab in the lab manual and read the introduction to the lab in the manual. It will be something like photosynthesis, chemical reactions, or inertia. Write down the scientific concept. Then write down what you know about the concept based on the lab manual, textbook, class notes, and handouts.
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Discussion and Conclusion Using play complete sentences, you need to discuss the following: the What did or did not occur What did or did not support the objective justify structures for unknowns (if necessary) Discuss tlc plates, Rf values,. Data and spectral (ir and/ or nmr) data comment on purity and yield you need to convince the reader (your TA) that your procedure and observations are valid. When writing your discussion, avoid the use of first person pronouns. In the discussion, you are correlating all your results and showing how they relate to your objective. Do not just re-state your observations.
The conclusion should just be a few sentences that relate to whether or not you met your objective. Mechanisms Include reaction mechanisms where applicable. Spectral Data remember to attach any spectroscopic data (ir or nmr) that you obtained during the lab class. If you do not attach this data, the discussion in the report is meaningless and you will likely receive no marks! First, carefully read the description of the lab: In most lab classes, you will have a lab manual that contains background for the lab and directions for doing the lab procedure. There may also be handouts or other materials you have access. And don't just skim.
If you delay recording an observation, you may forget later which could lead to difficulty writing up your discussion and conclusion sections. Summarize your results in the results table. Do not forget to include your calculations such as yields. Only report what you observe. Do not record what you expect to observe!
Remember to use the correct units and significant numbers when recording data. If data needs to be recorded graphically, ensure that: 1) a uniform scale is used, 2) you use the whole graph paper, 3) the graph has a title and 4) both the x- and y-axis are labeled. Remember to include the units of measure and plot the dependent variable on the y-axis and the independent variable on the x-axis. Be sure to ascertain what type of graph is required. A curve or a best-fit linear line. Plot all graphs manually. Any computer-generated graphs will not be marked!
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Your discussion and conclusion sections will be based on what you write in the observation section. You must write your observations and results directly in your lab report book. Do not record oliver your observations on loose paper and then transfer it over to your report book. If you do this, you will have marks deducted from your final lab mark! You should provide enough procedural information so that you can perform the experiment without any further external information or referring back to the lab manual. You should make enough observations to allow you to complete the objective stated in your pre-lab. Accurately and neatly record your observations immediately after you observe them.
Wan,., Organic Chemistry Experiments 261, fall 2010,. Organic Chemistry laboratory website, distillation. Et.; Introduction to Spectroscopy, brooks/ Cole, 2009, 345-360. Aldrich Online catalogue: ml, pre-lab questions, most labs will have pre-lab questions that you need to answer based on the procedures or the experimental. These questions serve to focus your attention on the main concepts of the experiment. Results Table, data, observations, calculations, and Products. Record all observations as your experiment progresses. It is important to note any changes in the experimental plan as well. You lease should record observations such as color changes, appearance of crystals, temperature of reactions, test results, physical properties obtained, as well as mass of reagents and products used.
include molecular weights, melting or boiling points and hazardous properties. This will help familiarize you with potential hazards of the experiment. Experimental Plan, in order to help make your time in the lab more efficient, you are required to formulate a flow chart to summarize the key points of your experiment. By doing this, you should not need to keep referring back to your lab manual. You are required to state the origin of all your resource/ reference material. List your references in the following order: author, book/ journal name, year, and page numbers. Note: wikipedia is not a proper scientific reference!
Your lab report should be neat and legible and only written in pen or ink (blue or black only). Do not use pencil or white-out! Pre-lab, preparation of the pre-lab prior to carrying out the experiment helps to familiarize you with the objectives of the experiment and any hazards associated with that lab. The pre-lab usually includes an objective, references, answers to pre-lab questions, table of reagents and an experimental plan. You are expected to complete the pre-lab before you come to the lab and be adequately prepared for carrying out the experiment. The pre-lab is plan collected every lab period before the experiment starts. If you do not complete a pre-lab, you will not be allowed to start the experiment and you will receive a score of zero! Use 1 or 2 complete sentences only and state the purpose or goal of the experiment you are about to carry out. The objective of this experiment is to determine the identity of Compound a using functional group tests and to confirm its structure by using infrared and nmr spectroscopy.
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To do a lab write up, determine the problem and your hypothesis, make a list of the necessary materials, and explain the procedure of the lab. Then, perform the lab by following the procedure carefully and recording your observations. In your write up, include a discussion and analysis of your results. At the very end of the write up, state whether you will accept or reject your original hypothesis, and include a section on possible errors that may have occurred. For more specific tips on writing the procedure section and recording your results, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Home trunk writing a good Lab Report, at every stage of an experiment, the accurate and unbiased recording of results is essential.