According to Bronkhorst, "the definition of Yoga given in the first chapter of the yoga sutra does not fit the descriptions contained in the same chapter and this may suggest the sutra incorporated Buddhist elements as described in the four jhanas. Wynne, in contrast to Bronkhorst's theory, states that the evidence in early buddhist texts, such as those found in Suttapitaka, suggest that these foundational ideas on formless meditation and element meditation were borrowed from pre-buddha Brahamanical sources attested in early Upanishads and ultimately the cosmological. Adi Shankara, in his commentary on Yoga sutras, distinguishes Dhyana from Dharana, by explaining Dhyana as the yoga state when there is only the "stream of continuous thought about the object, uninterrupted by other thoughts of different kind for the same object Dharana, states Shankara. Shankara gives the example of a yogin in a state of dharana on morning sun may be aware of its brilliance, color and orbit; the yogin in dhyana state contemplates on sun's orbit alone for example, without being interrupted by its color, brilliance or other. 62 In Patanjali's Raja yoga, also called "meditation yoga 63 dhyana is "a refined resume meditative practice a "deeper concentration of the mind which is taken up after preceding exercises. In Hinduism, dhyāna is considered to be an instrument to gain self-knowledge. It is a part of a self-directed awareness and unifying Yoga process by which a world that by default is experienced as disjointed, comes to be experienced as Self, and an integrated oneness with Brahman.
Web 2 note 4 It is the "locus classicus" of the "Hindu synthesis" which emerged around the beginning of the common Era, integrating Brahmanic and shramanic ideas with theistic devotion. Web 2 The Bhagavad Gita talks of four branches of yoga: 49 Karma yoga : The yoga of work in the world Jnāna yoga : The yoga of knowledge and intellectual endeavor Bhakti yoga : The yoga of devotion Dhyāna yoga : The yoga. 49 The yoga sutras of Patanjali edit main article: Yoga sutras of Patanjali In the yoga sutras of Patanjali (dated. 400 ce a key text of the yoga school of Hindu philosophy, dhyana is the seventh limb of this path, following Dharana and preceding Samadhi. Dhyana is integrally related to Dharana, one leads to other. Dharana is a state of mind, Dhyana the process of mind. Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes actively engaged with its focus. Patanjali defines contemplation ( Dhyana ) as the mind process, where the mind is fixed on something, and then there is "a course of uniform modification of knowledge". 58 Bronkhorst states that Buddhist influences are noticeable in the first chapter of the yogasutras, and confirmed by sutra.20 because it mentions asamprajnata samadhi is preceded by "trust ( sraddha energy (virya hazlitt mindfulness ( smriti concentration (samadhi and insight (prajna.
If one remains quiet, eventually the winds that ruffle the water will give up, and then one knows who one. God is constantly within us, but the mind obscures that fact with agitated waves of worldly desires. Meditation quiets those waves (Bhagavad Gita.28). — Huston Smith, foreword, The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifthAnniversary Edition 49 Dhyana along river Ganges in Varanasi (left Om in Tamil script as an instrument for meditation (right). Meditation in the Bhagavad Gita is a means to one's spiritual journey, requiring three moral values satya (truthfulness Ahimsa (non-violence) and Aparigraha (non-covetousness). 50 Dhyana in this ancient Hindu text, states Huston Smith, can be about whatever the person wants or finds spiritual, ranging from "the manifestation of divinity in a religious symbol in a human form or an inspiration in nature such as "a snow-covered mountain,. 50 The direction of deep meditation, in the text, is towards detaching the mind from sensory distractions and disturbances outside of oneself, submerging it instead on the indwelling spirit and one's soul towards the state of Samadhi, a state of bliss (Bhagavad Gita, chapter. 48 50 The gita presents a synthesis of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma with bhakti, the yogic ideals of liberation through jnana, and Samkhya philosophy.
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— vasistha Dharmasutras.1-30.8 44 45 Brahma sutras edit The Brahma-sutras, which distills the teachings of the Upanishads and is one of three foundational texts of the vedanta school of Hinduism, states that Dhyana is not Prativedam (or, one for each Veda and meditation belongs. 7 Adi Shankara dedicates an extensive chapter on meditation, in his commentary on the Brahma-sutras, in Sadhana as essential to spiritual practice. 46 His discussion there is similar to his extensive commentary on Dhyana in his Bhasya on Bhagavad Gita and the early Upanishads. 46 Dharma sutras edit The verse.8 of the ancient Vasistha Dharma-sutra declares meditation as a virtue, and interiorized substitute equivalent of a fire sacrifice. 47 Bhagavad Gita edit The term Dhyana, and related words with the meaning of meditation appears in many chapters of the Bhagavad Gita, such as in chapters 2, 12, 13 and.
8 The chapter 6 of the gita is titled as the "Yoga of Meditation". 48 The Bhagavad Gita, one of the three key books of Vedanta school of Hinduism, states four Marga (paths) to purify one's mind and to reach the summit of spirituality the path of Unselfish Work, the path of Knowledge, the path of devotion and the. 49 Huston Smith summarizes the need and value of meditation in Gita, as follows (abridged to change the analogy, health the mind is like a lake, and stones that are dropped into it (or winds) raise waves. Those waves do not let us see who we are. (.) The waters must be calmed.
7 In most of the later Hindu yoga traditions, which derive form Patanjali's Raja yoga, dhyana is "a refined meditative practice a "deeper concentration of the mind which is taken up after preceding exercises such as mastering pranayama (breath control) and dharana (mental focus). Discussion in Hindu texts edit vedas and Upanishads edit The term dhyanam appears in Vedic literature, such as hymn.36.2 of the rigveda and verse.11.1 of the taittiriya aranyaka. 31 32 The term, in the sense of meditation, appears in the Upanishads. 32 33 The kaushitaki upanishad uses it in the context of mind and meditation in verses.2.6, for example as follows: 34 with mind, meditate on me as being prana — Kaushitaki upanishad,.2 34 35 The term appears in the context of "contemplate. 33 36 The word Dhyana refers to meditation in Chandogya upanishad, while the Prashna Upanishad asserts that the meditation on aum leads to the world of Brahman (Ultimate reality). 7 The development of meditation in the vedic era paralleled the ideas of "interiorization where social, external yajna fire rituals ( Agnihotra ) were replaced with meditative, internalized rituals ( Prana-agnihotra ).
7 37 38 This interiorization of Vedic fire-ritual into yogic meditation ideas from Hinduism, that are mentioned in the samhita and Aranyaka layers of the vedas and more clearly in chapter 5 of the Chandogya upanishad (800 to 600 bce note 3 are also found. 40 41 This interiorization of fire rituals, where life is conceptualized as an unceasing sacrifice and emphasis is placed on meditation occurs in the classic Vedic world, in the early Upanishads and other texts such as the Shrauta sutras and verse.18 of Vedic vaikhanasa. 42 beyond the early Upanishads composed before 5th-century bce, the term Dhyana and the related terms such as Dhyai (Sanskrit:, deeply meditate) 43 appears in numerous Upanishads composed after the 5th-century bce, such as: chapter 1 of Shvetashvatara Upanishad, chapters 2 and 3 of Mundaka. 8 Dhyana as Dharma Practice righteousness ( dharma not unrighteousness. Speak the truth, not the untruth. Look at what is distant, not what's near at hand. Look at the highest, not at what's less than highest. (.) The fire is meditation (dhyana the firewood is truthfulness ( satya the offering is patience ( kshanta the Sruva spoon is modesty ( hri the sacrificial cake is not causing injury to living beings ( ahimsa and the priestly fee is the arduous gift.
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Wynne adds that Bronkhorst opinion "understates the role of meditation" in early Brahmanical tradition. Dhyana was incorporated into buddhism from Brahmanical practices, suggests Wynne, in the nikayas ascribed to Alara kalama homework and Uddaka ramaputta. In early Brahamical yoga, the goal of meditation was considered to be a nondual state identical to unmanifest state of Brahman, where subject-object duality had been dissolved. The early buddhist practices adapted these old yogic methods, pairing it to mindfulness and attainment of insight. Kalupahana states that the buddha "reverted to the meditational practices" he had learned from Alara kalama and Uddaka ramaputta. In Hinduism, state jones and ryan, the term first appears in the Upanishads. Techniques of concentration or meditation are a vedic tradition, states Frits Staal, because these ideas are found in the early Upanishads as dhyana or abhidhyana.
The earliest mention of Dhyana in the canonical jaina texts simply mention Dhyana as a means of emancipation, but in them ascetic practices are not emphasized nor is the discussion as systematic as in later jaina texts or Hindu texts such as the patanjali's Yogasutras. 25 There is no archeological or literary evidence, states Sagarmal jain, about the origins of systems for Dhyana and Yoga, and there is a great deal of similarities between jaina, buddhist, Ajivika, samkhya, yoga and other ancient Indian traditions. 23 The earliest texts, such as Tattvarthasutra suggest that these ideas developed in parallel, sometimes with different terms for similar ideas in various Indian traditions, influencing each other. 25 Buddhism introduced its own ideas, states Bronkhorst, such as the four dhyanas, which did not affect the mainstream meditation traditions in jaina and Hindu traditions for a long time. Note 2 All traditions, jainism, buddhism reason and Hinduism, introduced unique aspects and context to Dhyana, and mutually influenced each other. According to Bronkhorst, while jaina and Hindu meditation traditions predate buddhism, the buddhist terminology such as Samadhi, may have influenced the wording found in one of the several types of Dhyana found in the mahabharata as well as parts of Patanjali's Yogasutras. Alexander Wynne interprets Bronkhorst as stating that dhyana was a jaina tradition, from which both Hinduism and Buddhism borrowed ideas on meditation.
edit The term dhyana is used in jainism, buddhism and Hinduism, with somewhat different meanings. Vedic teachings hold that, since the universal divine self dwells within the heart, the way to experience and recognize divinity is to turn one's attention inward in a process of contemplative meditation. —william Mahony, the Artful Universe: An Introduction to the vedic Religious Imagination 19 The origins of the practice of dhyana, which culminates into samadhi, are a matter of dispute. According to Bronkhorst, the mainstream concept developed and is evidenced in jaina and Hindu texts in pre-buddhist period. Dhyana, states Sagarmal jain, has been essential to jaina religious practices, but the origins of Dhyana and Yoga in the pre-canonical era (before 6th-century bce) is unclear, and it likely developed in the Sramanic culture of ancient India. 23 The earliest jaina texts, on Dhyana such as Sutrakranga, antakrta-dasanga and Rsibhashita, mention Uddaka ramaputta note 1 who is said to be the teacher of some meditation methods to buddha, as well as the originator of Vipassana and Preksha meditation techniques. 23 The jaina tradition believes Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara, to have founded meditation, but there is no historical confirming evidence.
It is described in numerous Upanishads of Hinduism, 8 and in Patanjali's Yogasutras - a key text of the yoga school of Hindu philosophy. 9 10, contents, etymology and meaning edit Dhyāna ( Sanskrit :, pali : ) means "contemplation, reflection" and "profound, abstract meditation". 11 The root of the word is Dhi, which in the earliest layer of text of the vedas refers to "imaginative vision" and associated with goddess Saraswati with powers of knowledge, wisdom and poetic eloquence. 3 12 This term developed into the variant dhya- and dhyana, or "meditation". 3 Thomas Berry states that Dhyana, is "sustained attention" and the "application of mind to the chosen writing point of concentration". 13 Dhyana is contemplating, reflecting on whatever Dharana has focused. 14 If in the sixth limb of yoga one is concentrating on a personal deity, dhyana is its contemplation. If the concentration was on one object, Dhyana is non-judgmental, non-presumptuous observation of that object. 15 If the focus was on a concept/idea, dhyana is contemplating that concept/idea in all its aspects, forms and consequences.
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See also: Dhyāna in Buddhism, a statue of a meditating man (Kashmir, India ). Dhyana iast : Dhyāna) in, hinduism, buddhism, jainism means contemplation and meditation, though their technical context is different. Dhyana is taken. Yoga exercises, and leads to samadhi and self-knowledge. The concepts of dhyana and its practice originated in the vedic and upanishadic era, developed further in the buddhist, hindu and jain traditions, partly independently, partly influencing each other, and have been influential within the diverse traditions of Hinduism. 3, it is, in Hinduism, a part of a self-directed awareness and unifying. Yoga process by which the yogi realizes Self (Atman, essays soul one's relationship with other living beings, and Ultimate reality. 3 5, the term, dhyana appears in, aranyaka and, brahmana layers of the vedas but with unclear meaning, while in the early Upanishads it appears in the sense of "contemplation, meditation" and an important part of self-knowledge process.