In Prussia, frederic ii of Prussia was inspired the writing Grand Trianon of the palace of Versailles, and used it as the model for his summer residence, sanssouci, in Potsdam, designed for him by georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (17451747). Another work of baroque palace architecture is the Zwinger in Potsdam, the former orangerie of the palace of the dukes of Saxony in the 18th century. One of the best examples of rococo churches is the basilika vierzehnheiligen, or Basilica of the fourteen Holy helpers, a pilgrimage church located near the town of Bad Staffelstein near Bamberg, in bavaria, southern Germany. The basilica was designed by balthasar neumann and was constructed between 17, its plan a series of interlocking circles around a central oval with the altar placed in the exact center of the church. The interior of this church illustrates the summit of Rococo decoration. 24 Another notable example of the style is the pilgrimage Church of wies ( German : wieskirche ). It was designed by the brothers. It is located in the foothills of the Alps, in the municipality of Steingaden in the weilheim-Schongau district, bavaria, germany.
Some of the small most and ornamental and lavishly decorated architecture of the period was designed by the brothers Churriguera, who worked primarily in Salamanca and Madrid. The Church of San Esteban in Salamanca (1693) is one of the most ornate baroque churches anywhere. Their other works include the buildings on the city's main square, the Plaza mayor of Salamanca (1729). 21 Other notable Spanish baroque architects of the late baroque include pedro de ribera, a pupil of Churriguera, who designed the royal Hospice of San Fernando in Madrid, and Narciso tomé, who designed the celebrated El Transparente altarpiece at Toledo cathedral (172932) which gives the. 21 The architects of the Spanish Baroque had an effect far beyond Spain; their work was highly influential in the churches built in the Spanish colonies in Latin America and the Philippines. The Church built by the jesuits for a college in Tepotzotlán, with its ornate baroque facade and tower, is a good example. 22 Central Europe and Rococo (1740s1770s) edit main article: Rococo From 1680 to 1750, many highly ornate cathedrals, abbeys, and pilgrimage churches were built in central Europe, in bavaria, austria, and what is now the czech Republic. The princes of the multitude of states in that region also chose baroque for their palaces and residences, and often used Italian-trained architects to construct them. 23 Notable architects included Johann Fischer von Erlach, lukas von Hildebrandt and Dominikus Zimmermann in bavaria, balthasar neumann in Bruhl, and Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann in Dresden.
19 A series of massive earthquakes in Sicily required the rebuilding of most of the, and several were built in the exuberant late baroque or Rococo style. Spanish Baroque architecture edit main article: Spanish Baroque architecture The catholic Church in Spain, and particularly the jesuits, were the driving force of Spanish Baroque architecture. The first major work in the style was the san Isidro Chapel in Madrid, begun in 1643 by pedro de la torre. It contrasted an extreme richness of ornament on the exterior with simplicity in the interior, divided into multiple spaces and using effects of light to create a sense of mystery. 20 The cathedral in Santiago de compostela was modernized with a series of Baroque additions beginning at the end of the 17th century, starting with a highly-ornate bell tower (1680 then flanked by two even taller and more ornate towers, called the Obradorio, added between. 21 Granada had only been liberated from the moors in the 15th century, and had its own distinct variety of Baroque. The painter, sculptor and architect Alonso cano designed the baroque interior of Granada cathedral between 1652 and his death in 1657. It features dramatic contrasts of the massive white columns and gold decor.
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The sculptor and architect gian Lorenzo bernini designed a new quadruple colonnade around. Peter's Square (1656 to 1667). The three galleries of columns in a giant ellipse balance the oversize dome and give the Church and square a unity and the feeling of a giant theater. 17 Another major innovator of the Italian High Baroque was Francesco borromini, whose major work was the Church of San Carlo alle quattro fontane or saint Charles of the four fountains (163446). The sense of movement is given not plan by the decoration, but by the walls themselves, which undulate and by concave and convex elements, including an oval tower and balcony inserted into a concae traverse.
The interior was equally revolutionary; the main space of the church was oval, beneath an oval dome. 17 painted ceilings, crowded with angels and saints and tromp-l'oeil architectural effects, were an important feature of the Italian High Baroque. Major works included The Entry of saint Ignace into paradise by Andrea pozzo (16851695) in the Church of saint Ignatius in Rome, and The triumph of the name of Jesus by giovanni battista gaulli in the Church of the gesù in Rome (16691683 which featured. 18 The style spread quickly from Rome to other regions of Italy: It appeared in Venice in the church of Santa maria della salute (16311687) by baldassare longhena, genesys a highly original octagonal form crowned with an enormous cupola. It appeared also in Turin, notably in the Chapel of the holy Shroud (16681694) by guarino guarini. The style also began to be used in palaces; guarini designed the palazzo carignano in Turin, while longhena designed the ca' rezzonico on the Grand Canal, (1657 finished by giorgio massari with decorated with paintings by giovanni battista tiepolo.
These were large plaques of carved of marble or stone, usually oval and with a rounded surface, which carried images or text in gilded letters, and were placed as interior decoration or above the doorways of buildings, delivering messages to those below. They showed a wide variety of invention, and were found in all types of buildings, from cathedrals and palaces to small chapels. 14 Baroque architects sometimes used forced perspective to create illusions. For the palazzo spada in Rome, borromini used columns of diminishing size, a narrowing floor and a miniature statue in the garden beyond to create the illusion that a passageway was thirty meters long, when it was actually only seven meters long. A statue at the end of the passage appears to be life-size, though it is only sixty centimeters high. Borromini designed the illusion with the assistance of a mathematician.
Italian Baroque architecture edit The first building in Rome to have a baroque facade was the Church of the gesù in 1584; it was plain by later Baroque standards, but marked a break with the traditional Renaissance facades that preceded. The interior of this church remained very austere until the high Baroque, when it was lavishly ornamented. In Rome in 1605, paul V became the first of series of popes who commissioned basilicas and church buildings designed to inspire emotion and awe through a proliferation of forms, and a richness of colors and dramatic effects. 15 Among the most influential monuments of the early baroque were the facade. Peter's Basilica (16061619 and the new nave and loggia which connected the facade to michelangelo's dome in the earlier church. The new design created a dramatic contrast between the soaring dome and the disproportionately wide facade, and the contrast on the facade itself between the doric columns and the great mass of the portico. 16 In the mid to late 17th century the style reached its peak, later termed the high Baroque. Many monumental works were commissioned by popes Urban viii and Alexander vii.
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Peter's Basilica in Rome. The baldequin. Peter is an example plan of the balance of opposites in Baroque art; the gigantic proportions of the piece, with the apparent lightness of the canopy; and the contrast between the solid twisted columns, bronze, gold and marble of the piece with the flowing draperies. 13 The Dresden Frauenkirche serves as a prominent example of Lutheran Baroque art, which was completed in 1743 after being commissioned by the lutheran city council of Dresden and was "compared by eighteenth-century observers to St Peters in Rome". 1 The twisted column in the interior of churches is one of the signature features of the baroque. It gives both a sense of motion and also a dramatic new way of reflecting light. The cartouche was another characteristic feature of baroque decoration.
11 Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below. The dome was one summary of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, and with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression. 12 Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura ; tromp-l'oeil paintings on the ceiling in stucco frames, either real or painted, crowded with paintings of saints and angels and connected by architectural details with the balustrades and consoles. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the baroque ceiling paintings were carefully created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see. The interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the high Baroque, and focused around the altar, usually placed under the dome. The most celebrated baroque decorative works of the high Baroque are the Chair of saint Peter (164753) and the baldachino. Peter (162334 both by gian Lorenzo bernini,.
renaissance in 1855 by the Swiss art historian Jacob Burckhardt in an article in the journal le cicerone. He used the term to attack the movement for subverting the values of the renaissance. 6 The term "style baroque" did not enter into the dictionary of the Académie française until 1878, when it lost its original negative connotation. 7 In 1888, the art historian heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting, sculpture, and architecture of the renaissance and the baroque. 8 Architecture: origins and characteristics edit main article: Baroque architecture The baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the catholic Church at the council of Trent in 154563, in response to the Protestant Reformation. The first phase of the counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, and declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. 9 10 Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists.
The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, spain and Portugal, then to austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant variant, called rocaille. Rococo, which trunk appeared in France and central Europe until the late 18th century. Contents, origin of word edit, the word baroque was a portuguese term for a pearl (barocco) with an irregular shape. Cognates for the term in other Romance languages include: barroco in Portuguese, barrueco in Spanish, and barocco in Italian. 2, it was used in French to describe pearls in a 1531 inventory. 3, in the 18th century, the term was usually used to describe music. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of jean-Philippe rameau 's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, which was printed in the mercure de France in may 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque complaining that the music. 4 jean-Jacques rousseau, who was a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encylopedié : "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, and loaded with modulations and dissonances.
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For other uses, see, baroque (disambiguation). The, baroque us : /bəroʊk/. Uk : /bərɒk/ ) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. Renaissance style and preceded the, neoclassical style. It was encouraged by the. Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity. Protestant architecture, art and music, though, lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. 1, the baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur twist and surprise to achieve a sense of awe.