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Sub-Saharan Africa - wikipedia
The climate of the middle east ranges from the warm summers and cold winters of highland Turkey and Iran, through hotter summers and cool winters of northern Mesopotamia and the mediterranean coast, to the extreme temperatures of the Arabian desert. Most, but not all, of the region is arid. As this outline suggests, geography plays a significant role in the formation and maintenance of cultures. The mens earliest civilizations with large population centers developed near abundant sources of water and agricultural land, rather than in areas of other valuable raw materials, like metals, semi-precious stones, building stone, or timber. Geography also provides a basis for distinctive attributes of regional cultures, like the importance of olive oil and wine in the cuisine of the eastern Mediterranean region (where grapes and olives can easily be cultivated or the extensive use letters of incense in daily life, ritual.
Scholars debate the extent to which geography shapes culture and the direction of historical change. Some see geography as destiny, while others see a more complex set of changing opportunities and constraints that geography poses through history.
The western coast of Turkey had closer contact with cultures of Greece and the aegean sea than with the rest of the middle east through much of its early history. Ancient cultures in Anatolia included the hittite empire and a hurrian-speaking population. Southeast of the levant is the Arabian Peninsula with its extensive deserts, oases, and coastal regions along the red sea, arabian sea, and Persian Gulf that were more often suited to permanent settlement. Today, this area includes the countries of Bahrain, kuwait, Oman, qatar, saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Distinctive ancient cultures of this area include the south Arabian kingdoms in what is now Yemen that traded incense to the levant and communities in Oman that were rich in copper and hard stone. Arab culture first appears in the historical record after the introduction of the camel in about 1200 bce, which allowed more extensive use of arid zones of saudi Arabia, and Islam first developed in the oasis towns of Mecca and Medina before spreading over much.
East of the levant and south of the taurus mountains is the area defined by the euphrates and Tigris rivers that has sometimes been called Mesopotamia (the land between the rivers now encompassing eastern Syria, iraq, and a small area of southwestern Iran. In many ways, what we call Mesopotamian civilization is a series of diverse languages and cultures bound together by a common script and written tradition. Ancient languages in the area included Sumerian, akkadian, Amorite, babylonian, Assyrian, and Aramaic. Mesopotamia is a particularly fertile agricultural zone with vast areas available for cultivation. Northern Mesopotamia receives enough rainfall to grow grain crops, while southern Mesopotamia receives virtually no rain, so agriculture there depended on extensive networks of irrigation canals. At the southern end of the tigris-Euphrates course, a series of marshes has maintained a distinctive environment and culture for millennia. Apart from water and fertile soil (and later oil mesopotamia contains few natural resources, and has depended on trade with people in the mountainous regions to the north and east for stone, copper, and timber. Mesopotamia is bordered on the east by the zagros mountains of western Iran and eastern Turkey (elevation up to 15,000 feet whose highland valleys were home to Elamite and Persian civilizations as well as later powerful nomadic confederations including the bakhtiari. The zagros are a rich source of stone and timber.
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As a source of water, food, and fertile soil deposited in annual floods as well as a transportation route, it was the ecological basis for ancient Nubian and Egyptian civilization. In the southern part of this region, the broad alluvial plain is broken by six cataracts—areas in which the narrow river valley, strong current, islands, and rapids make navigation difficult. The rich mineral resources of the deserts around the nile, particularly gold, have historically been important to economic development in this area. East of the nile valley, across the eastern Desert and the sinai peninsula, is the eastern Mediterranean coastal plain, which has historically been connected with mountains and river valleys that run parallel. Comprising the modern countries of Israel, lebanon, and western Syria, as well as parts of Jordan and Turkey, this region is sometimes called the levant (after resume the French term for rising, here referring to the rising sun). Located in the mediterranean climatic zone with rich agricultural land and relatively abundant rainfall, and having easy access to land and sea routes, the levant has always been a cultural crossroads and has frequently been conquered. Among the first areas to develop agriculture (as far back as 11,000 bce ancient cultures that developed in this region include canaanite, amorite, israelite, and Phoenician. The levant is bordered on the north by the taurus mountains reaching up to 12,000 feet in elevation, which separate the levant from the Anatolian plateau in modern Turkey. The Anatolian plateau is a relatively isolated but fertile agricultural zone, and the taurus mountains are rich in metals and minerals—they were known as the silver mountain in some ancient texts, but copper was even more abundantly available.
Cross Connect Magazine mariamkhtj94 reblogged this from crossconnectmag mutantquatreyeux reblogged this from stepsistr caribbeansun reblogged this from stepsistr itsjavius reblogged this from stepsistr stepsistr reblogged this from spazio-morto battlinghurricanes reblogged this from mr-outer-spacing-out mr-arquitect reblogged this from crossconnectmag bitchymuggle reblogged this from blackjackt blackjackt reblogged. The middle east is a large and diverse geographical area located in southwest Asia and northeast Africa. It extends over 2,000 miles from the Black sea in the north to the Arabian sea in the south, and about 1,000 miles from the mediterranean sea in the west to the mountains of staff Iran. The term Middle east came into common use in the early twentieth century, but remains loosely defined. One term sometimes applied to part of this area is Fertile Crescent, which was coined by james Henry Breasted in 1914 to refer to the arc of fertile agricultural zones that formed the basis for early civilizations, in what is now Iraq, syria, lebanon, and. Scholars studying the ancient past usually use the term near East for this area. Mountains and deserts divide the middle east into six zones that are both geographically distinct and have influenced the development and maintenance of cultural traditions through much of the history of the region. In the first of these zones, the nile river flows northward through the sahara desert from Khartoum in Sudan (where its two major tributaries join through Egypt, and to the mediterranean sea.
Remarkably, this unique hydrological system is able to sustain the largest permanent freshwater lakes to be found in such an arid desert environment anywhere in the world. A nasa image taken on november 14, 2009, by the crew of the iss. The lakes are divided into two groups, 40km apart. They vary greatly in chemical composition, review some being so salty that they can only support the most basic forms of life, while others are fresh enough to provide habitat for aquatic plants, fish and a diversity of other species. The largest and most biologically important lake (lake teli, in the eastern group known as Ounianga serir) has a surface area.4km2 and a maximum depth of. Its water is fresh, and supports an abundance of life. The sandy substrate is highly porous, so water flows freely underground between lake teli and 13 other smaller lakes in the eastern group.
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The lakes of Ounianga consist of 18 lakes located in the heart of the sahara desert, in an extremely arid region of northern Chad where the average yearly rainfall is no more than. They depend on an underground supply restaurant of fossil water that fell on this area in ancient times when the saharan climate was much wetter than it is today. Approximately 14,800 to 5,500 years ago the area was occupied by a single large lake, probably tens of kilometers long. As the climate dried out during the subsequent millennia, the lake shrank, and large, wind-driven sand dunes invaded the original depression, dividing it into several smaller basins. The 18 lakes is all that remains today. The lakes are situated in a shallow basin below sandstone cliffs and hills, from where the ancient water flows. The almost-year-round northeast winds and cloudless skies make for very high evaporation rates. But the underground bed of water-rich rocks are large enough to keep supplying the small lakes with water despite the high evaporation rate.