Name of the device define keymorse_name "keymorse" /Initialisation of the module static int initModule(void) int iretval hippie 0; int iIndex 0;. Registers the character device if (Mo_Major 0) g_devid mkdev(Mo_Major, mo_Minor iretval mo_Dev_Numbers, keymorse_name else iretval mo_Minor, mo_Dev_Numbers, keymorse_name mo_Major major(g_devid if (iRetval 0) /Registers the device methods and adds them to the kernel iretval setup_cdev( g_Morsedevice, iindex. Return iretval; /uninitialisation of the module static void exitModule(void) if (Mo_Major 0) mo_Dev_Numbers. next step is setting up the module functions for open release and write. This is done by the setup_cdev function, witch wraps the complete setup procedure. The release_cdev function is used to unregister the module functions. This function registers the main functions of the device / / static int setup_cdev(struct TypeMorsedevice* pData, int iIndex) int ideviceno mkdev(Mo_Major, mo_Minor iindex cdev_init( pData- cdev, g_Main_fops pData- cdev.
PcFifoBuffer fifo buffer to communicate with the reader thread pttydriver The keyboard device driver used to control the keyboard led's struct TypeMorsedevice struct cdev cdev; essay struct task_struct* pThread; struct kfifo* pFifo; struct semaphore lockMutex; struct semaphore lockWriter; char* pcFifoBuffer; struct tty_driver* pttydriver; ; /Variable. The variable containing the file operations is called g_Main_fops. Only the functions for opening and releasing the file and for writing data are used. Variable to store file operations static struct file_operations g_Main_fops. Owner this_module, ; The device id containing the major and minor device number is called g_devid. id of the device driver static dev_t g_devid; All these variables must be initialized when loading the module to the kernel. The first step after initializing some global variables is to register the module as a character device. If the major device number is not given, it will be dynamically allocated by the kernel.
Cpp Implementation of keymorse driver, including processing thread make make file to compile and build the driver Installs the driver and creates the device mo0 Uninstalls the driver and removes the device mo0 The keymorse. Cpp is parted into three main sections, functions of the reader thread, functions of the writer thread and registration functions. The registration functions are needed to have a valid kernel module. Initialization of the module static int initModule(void). uninitialisation of the module static void exitModule(void). hooks module_init(initModule module_exit(exitModule before going into the two main functions initModule and exitModule lets looks at some very important structures and variables needed to register and manage the kernel module. The keymorse module is written as a character device The complete device data is managed with the typeMorsedevice data structure. It contains following elements: cdev character device structure (Requirement 1). PThread reader thread lockMutex Mutex to protect the fifo queue lockWriter Mutex to ensure that only one writer can send its data to the fifo queue (Requirement 2).
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To get a good performance the character is used as index. The table entry contains a binary string containing the morse code. To send the morse code only one time parameter is used. Each character is separated with 2 time slices. Each sign is separated by one time slice The dash has a length of 3 time slices. The dot has the length of one time slice.
To configure a correct morse code the only one time can be configured within this driver implementation (requirement 4). This section talks about the implementation of the keymorse kernel module. The techniques and some code fragments were taken from the linux Driver for book drv. First the project structure is discussed. Then the key implementation of the module is explained. 3.1 Project Structure The project contains 5 files: keymorse. H header for definitions and forward declarations of functions and data structures keymorse.
Only one writer thread can access to the queue at the time. This ensures that no data gets mixed. Requirement 5 : The reader turns in an endless loop. If no data is available in the fifo queue the reader is put asleep and waked up if a writer puts some data into the queue. Once the reader has reawaken it acquires the fifo-lock and reads a character out of the fifo.
Now since some space in the fifo is gained, the possibly waiting writer can be reawaken. Requirement 6 : The writer is trying to write each character separately into the fifo (loop). If the fifo is full the writer thread is put asleep (waitfor_EmptySpace) until the reader has processed some data. If there is enough space, the fifo-lock is acquired and the data is written to the fifo. After that the waiting reader is woken up, since the reader is possibly waiting for data. The sending of the character can be done outside of the fifo-lock. 2.2 Morse code The morse code is provided in a binary table.
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The module is designed using 2 threads, a essay writer thread and a reader thread processing the data and controlling the keyboard led's. The writer thread is provided by the kernel itself. Each write method is blocked until all data is written to the fifo queue. The reader thread is instantiated once loading the module to the kernel. Only one reader thread exists. Instead of communicating directly with the keyboard hardware the tty-keyboard driver is used to control the led's. 2.1 Lock mechanism, requirement 2 : to meet this requirement a writerLock is used.
Yes 2, only one writer at time can access the device for writing. Yes 3, the size of the buffer, and the size of chunk of data read by the reader, can be set upon loading (module parameters). Yes (only the buffer size can be set) 4, the length (in milliseconds) of both dot and dashes must be configurable as module parameter. Yes (only one time can be set) 5, when sower there is no data to convert to morse, the kernel reader is put asleep and the writer is woken. Yes 6, when there is no space left for writing into the buffer, the writer is put asleep and the reader is woken. You must implement a /proc interface to expose the current status of the device (available data, device status,.) yes 8, you must provide some helper scripts to create the necessary device files in /dev yes 9, you must provide a makefile to compile your module. Yes, the requirements met are described in the implementation section. 1.3 Terminology, the kernel module for morse code is called keymorse. The device driver in /dev directory is called mo0.
been copied from. The goal of this project is to develop a module for the linux kernel implementing a character oriented device that reads some input from the users and blinks the corresponding morse code (MO) on the keyboard led's. An user writer process writes data into one end of the device, and the a kernel thread reads reads it from the other end and produces the morse code. The device itself contains a small fifo buffer used to store temporarily the data being transferred: when the buffer is full, a writer trying to put new data into the device is put asleep; when the buffer is empty, the kernel thread reader is put. To avoid concurrency problems, only one writer at time can send data to the device. 1.2 Requirements, following requirements were given by the project evaluation team:. Met 1, the module must implement a char device for the linux kernel.
Insert your usb stick and type the following df command to see if it is mounted automatically on a debian Linux desktop: df, reviews sample outputs: Filesystem 1K-blocks Used available Use mounted on udev /dev tmpfs /run /dev/mapper/md0_crypt / tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs /run/lock tmpfs /sys/fs/cgroup /dev/sdc. You need to unmount /media/vivek/data : sudo umount /media/vivek/data, or sudo umount /dev/sdd1, another option is to run dmesg command to find out usb device name: sudo dmesg. Sample outputs: 461339.310378 usb 2-1.7: new high-speed usb device number 12 using ehci-pci 461339.420453 usb 2-1.7: New usb device found, idVendor0781, idProduct558a 461339.420457 usb 2-1.7: New usb device strings: Mfr1, Product2, serialNumber3 461339.420460 usb 2-1.7: Product: Ultra 461339.420461 usb 2-1.7: Manufacturer: SanDisk 461339.420463 usb 2-1.7. Step 2: Create a bootable usb stick on Linux Type the following dd command to create a bootable usb image from. Iso file : sudo dd o of/dev/sdd bs1M statusprogress The dd command will write process data to a usb stick dev/sdd)and a progress bar appears on screen. Once Step 3: you are done Thats all! You now have ubuntu on a usb stick, bootable and ready to install on your Laptop, desktop or server based system. Click here to join the discussion tagged as: Tags Easy.
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Last updated October 13, 2017 in Categories. Bash shell, commands, debian / Ubuntu, linux, i downloaded a ubuntu. Iso file named o on a debian Linux system. How do i write or burn a ubuntu. Iso to a usb device for installation purpose from Linux terminal? You need to use the dd command to create a bootable usb stick to install short Ubuntu linux on your Laptop or Desktop. Creating a bootable Ubuntu usb stick is easy from Linux or Unix-like system such as MacOS. Step 1: Find your usb device name.