Ossendowski said he was told about a subterranean kingdom that exists inside the earth. It was known to buddhists as Agharti. 29 george papashvily in his Anything Can Happen (1940) claimed the discovery in the caucasus mountains of a cavern containing human skeletons "with heads as big as bushel baskets" and an ancient tunnel leading to the centre of the earth. One man entered the tunnel and never returned. 30 novelist Lobsang Rampa in his book the cave of the Ancients said an underground chamber system exists beneath the himalayas of Tibet, filled with ancient machinery, records and treasure. 31 Michael Grumley, a cryptozoologist, has linked Bigfoot and other essay hominid cryptids to ancient tunnel systems underground. 32 According to the ancient astronaut writer Peter Kolosimo a robot was seen entering a subterranean tunnel below a monastery in Mongolia.
27 William fairfield Warren, in his book paradise foundThe Cradle of essay the human Race at the north Pole, presented his belief that humanity originated on a continent in the Arctic called Hyperborea. This influenced some early hollow Earth proponents. According to marshall Gardner, both the Eskimo and Mongolian peoples had come from the interior of the earth through an entrance at the north pole. 28 Marshall Gardner wrote a journey to the earth's Interior in 1913 and published an expanded edition in 1920. He placed an interior sun in the earth and built a working model of the hollow Earth which he patented (. Gardner made no mention of reed, but did criticize symmes for his ideas. Around the same time, vladimir Obruchev wrote a novel titled Plutonia, in which the hollow Earth possessed an inner Sun and was inhabited by prehistoric species. The interior was connected with the surface by an opening in the Arctic. The explorer Ferdynand Ossendowski wrote a book in 1922 titled beasts, men and Gods.
Lyons published The hollow Globe which put forth a symmes-like hollow Earth hypothesis, but failed to mention Symmes himself. Symmes's son Americus then published The symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1878 to set the record straight. 20th century edit nequa or The Problem of the Ages, first serialized in a newspaper printed in Topeka, kansas in 1900 and considered an early feminist utopian novel, mentions John Cleves Symmes' theory as an explanation for the hollow Earth they sail into. An early twentieth-century proponent of hollow Earth, william reed, wrote Phantom of the poles in 1906. He supported the idea of a hollow Earth, but without interior shells or inner sun. The spiritualist writer Walburga, lady paget in her book colloquies with an unseen friend (1907) was an early writer to mention the hollow Earth hypothesis. She claimed that cities exist beneath a desert, which is where the people of Atlantis moved. She said an entrance to the subterranean kingdom will be discovered in the 21st century.
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Suggested that the earth consisted of a hollow shell about 1,300 km (810 mi) thick, with openings about 2,300 km (1,400 mi) across at both poles with 4 inner shells each open at the poles. Symmes became the most famous of the early hollow Earth proponents, and writing Hamilton, Ohio, even has a monument to him and his ideas. 26 he proposed making an expedition to the north Pole hole, thanks to efforts of one of his followers, james McBride. Jeremiah reynolds also delivered lectures on the "Hollow Earth" and argued for an expedition. Reynolds went on an expedition to Antarctica himself but missed joining the Great.
Exploring Expedition of 18381842, even though that venture was a result of his agitation. Though Symmes himself never wrote write a book about his ideas, several authors' published works discussing his ideas. McBride wrote symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1826. It appears that reynolds has an article that appeared as a separate booklet in 1827: Remarks of Symmes' Theory Which Appeared in the American quarterly review. In 1868, a professor.
17 18 Brazilian Indians, who live alongside the parima river in Brazil, claim that their forefathers emerged in ancient times from an underground land, and that many of their ancestors still remained inside the earth. Ancestors of the Inca supposedly came from underground caves which are located east of cuzco, peru. 19 17th and 18th centuries edit Edmond Halley in 1692 20 put forth the idea of Earth consisting of a hollow shell about 800 km (500 mi) thick, two inner concentric shells and an innermost core. Atmospheres separate these shells, and each shell has its own magnetic poles. The spheres rotate at different speeds. Halley proposed this scheme in order to explain anomalous compass readings.
He envisaged the atmosphere inside as luminous (and possibly inhabited) and speculated that escaping gas caused the aurora borealis. 21 de camp and ley have claimed (in their Lands beyond ) that leonhard Euler also proposed a hollow-Earth idea, getting rid of multiple shells and postulating an interior sun 1,000 km (620 mi) across to provide light to advanced inner-Earth civilizations but they provide no references;. 22 de camp and ley also claim that Sir John Leslie expanded on Euler's idea, suggesting two central suns named Pluto and Proserpine (this was unrelated to the planet Pluto, which was discovered and named a century later). Leslie did propose a hollow Earth in his 1829 Elements of Natural Philosophy (pp. . 44953 but does not mention interior suns. Jules Verne alludes to the Pluto-Proserpine theory, which he attributes to "an English captain in journey to the center of the earth. 23 le clerc Milfort in 1781 led a journey with hundreds of Creek indians to a series of caverns near the red river above the junction of the mississippi river. According to milfort the original Creek indian ancestors are believed to have emerged out to the surface of the earth in ancient times from the caverns. Milfort also claimed the caverns they saw "could easily contain 15,000 20,000 families." 24 25 19th century edit In 1818, john Cleves Symmes,.
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10 Natives of the Trobriand Islands believe that their ancestors had come from a summary subterranean land through a cavern hole called "Obukula". 11 Mexican folklore also tells of a cave in a mountain five miles south of Ojinaga, and that Mexico is possessed by devilish creatures who came from inside the earth. 12 In the middle ages, an ancient German myth held that some mountains located between Eisenach and Gin Germany hold a portal to the inner Earth. A russian legend says the samoyeds, an ancient Siberian tribe, traveled to an underground cavern city to live inside the earth. 13 The Italian writer Dante describes a hollow earth in his well-known 14th century work Inferno, in which the fall of Lucifer from heaven caused an enormous funnel to appear in a previously solid and spherical earth, as well as an enormous mountain opposite. In Native american mythology, it is said that the ancestors of the mandan people in ancient times emerged from a subterranean land through a cave at the north side of the missouri river. 14 There is also a tale about a tunnel in the san Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona near Cedar Creek which is said to lead inside the earth to a land inhabited by a mysterious tribe. 15 It is also the belief of the tribes of the Iroquois that their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world inside the earth. 16 The elders of the hopi people believe that a sipapu entrance in the Grand Canyon exists which leads to the underworld.
6 There are also stories of medieval knights and saints who went on pilgrimages to a cave located in Station Island, county dissertation donegal in Ireland, where they made journeys inside the earth into a place of purgatory. 7 In county down, northern Ireland there is a myth which says tunnels lead to the land of the subterranean tuatha dé danann, a group of people who are believed to have introduced Druidism to Ireland, and then went back underground. 8 In Hindu mythology, the underworld is referred to as Patala. In the hindu epic Ramayana, it has been depicted how Rama and lakshmana were taken by the king of the underworld Ahiravan, brother of the demon king ravana. Later on they were rescued by hanuman. The Angami naga tribes of India claim that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land inside the earth. 9 The taino from Cuba believe their ancestors emerged in ancient times from two caves in a mountain underground.
Ancient Greeks, there were caverns under the surface which were entrances leading to the underworld, some of which were the caverns at tainaron in lakonia, at Troezen in Argolis, at Ephya in Thesprotia, at Herakleia in Pontos, and in Ermioni. 3 In Thracian and Dacian legends, it is said that there are underground chambers occupied by an ancient god called Zalmoxis. 4 In Mesopotamian religion there is a story of a man who, after traveling through the darkness of a tunnel in the mountain of "Mashu entered a subterranean garden. 5 Chapel, bell tower and penitential beds on Station Island. The bell tower stands on a mound that is the site of a cave which, according to various myths, is an entrance to a place of purgatory inside the earth. The cave has been closed since October 25, 1632. In Celtic mythology there is a legend of a cave called " Cruachan also known as "Ireland's gate to hell a mythical and ancient cave from which according to legend strange creatures would emerge and be seen on the surface of the earth.
Pierre bouguer in 1740, and definitely by, charles Hutton (1778). It was still occasionally defended in the help early-to-mid 19th century, notably. John Cleves Symmes. Reynolds, but by this time was part of popular pseudoscience and no longer a scientifically viable hypothesis. The concept of a hollow Earth still recurs in folklore and as the premise for subterranean fiction, and a subgenre of adventure fiction journey to the center of the earth, at the earth's Core ). Contents, hypothesis edit, in ancient times, the concept of a subterranean land inside the earth appeared in mythology, folklore and legends. The idea of subterranean realms seemed arguable, and became intertwined with the concept of "places" of origin or afterlife, such as the. Greek underworld, the nordic svartálfaheimr, the Christian Hell, and the jewish Sheol (with details describing inner Earth in Kabalistic literature, such as the zohar and Hesed l'avraham ).
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This article is about the concept. For writing the novel by john and Carole barrowman, see. For the album by soma, see. A cross-sectional drawing of the planet Earth showing the "Interior World" of Atvatabar, from. Bradshaw 's 1892 science-fiction novel, the goddess of Atvatabar, the. Hollow Earth is a historical concept proposing that the planet. Earth is entirely hollow or contains a substantial interior space. Notably suggested by, edmond Halley in the late 17th century, the notion was tentatively disproven.