But how to turn that analysis into prose? The company has hired a team of "meta-writers trained journalists who have built a set of templates. They work with the engineers to coach the computers to identify various "angles" from the data. Who won the game? Was it a come-from-behind victory or a blowout? Did one player have a fantastic day at wood the plate? The algorithm considers context and information from other databases as well: Did a losing streak end? Then comes the structure.
"More than 90 percent.". Narrative science's writing engine requires several steps. First, it must amass high-quality data. That's why finance and sports are such natural subjects: Both involve the fluctuations of numbers—earnings per share, stock swings, eras, rbi. And stats geeks are always creating new data that can enrich a story. Baseball fans, for instance, have created models that calculate the odds of a team's victory in every situation as the game progresses. So if something happens during one at-bat that suddenly changes the odds of victory from say, 40 percent to 60 percent, the algorithm can be programmed to highlight that pivotal play as the most dramatic moment of the game thus far. Then the algorithms must fit that data into some broader understanding of the subject matter. (For instance, they must know that the team with the highest number of "runs" is declared the winner of a baseball game.) so narrative science's engineers program a set of rules that govern each subject, be it corporate earnings or a sporting event.
We, write the, story - akordy a text písně
Could it create stories good enough that people would pay to read ramanujan them? The answers were positive enough to convince him that "there was a really big, exciting potential business here he says. The trio founded Narrative science with Frankel as ceo in 2010. The startup's first customer was a tv network for the big Ten college sports conference. The company's algorithm would write stories on thousands of Big Ten sporting events in near-real time; its accounts of football games updated after every quarter. Narrative science also got assigned the women's softball beat, where it became the country's most prolific chronicler of that sport. But not long after the contract began, a slight problem emerged: The stories tended to focus on the victors.
When a big Ten team got whipped by an out-of-conference rival, the resulting write-ups could be downright humiliating. Conference officials asked Narrative science to find a way for the stories to praise the performances of the big Ten players even when they lost. A human journalist might have blanched at the request, but Narrative science's engineers saw no problem in tweaking the software's parameters—hacking it to make it write more like a hack. Likewise, when the company began covering Little league games, it quickly understood that parents didn't want to read about their kids' errors. So the algorithmic accounts of those matchups ignore dropped fly balls and focus on the heroics. i asked Kristian graffiti Hammond what percentage of news would be written by computers in 15 years.
While there, in the mid-1990s, he created a system that tracked users' reading and writing and then recommended relevant documents. Hammond built a small company around that technology, which he later sold. By that time, he had moved to northwestern University, becoming codirector of its Intelligent Information Laboratory. In 2009, hammond and his colleague larry birnbaum taught a class at Medill that included both programmers and prospective journalists. They encouraged their students to create a system that could transform data into prose stories. One of the students in the class was a stringer for the Tribune who covered high school sports; he and two other journalism students were paired with a computer science student.
Their prototype software, stats Monkey, collected box scores and play-by-play data to spit out credible accounts of college baseball games. At the end of the semester, the class participated in a demo day, where students presented their projects to a roomful of executives from the likes of espn, hearst, and the Tribune. The Stats Monkey presentation was particularly impressive. "They put a box score and play-by-play into the program, and in something close to 12 seconds it drew examples from 40 years of Major league history, wrote a game account, located the best picture, and wrote a caption recalls the medill dean, john lavine. Stuart Frankel, a former doubleClick executive who left the online advertising network after google purchased it in 2008, was among the guests that day. "When these guys did the presentation, the air in the room changed he said. "But it was still just a piece of software that wrote stories about baseball games—very limited." Frankel followed up with Hammond and Birnbaum. Could this system create any kind of story, using any kind of data?
Kalo: we want to write a new story for Vanuatu oceania
Instead the universe of newswriting will expand dramatically, as computers mine vast troves of data to produce ultracheap, totally readable accounts of events, trends, and using developments that no journalist is currently covering. That's not to say that computer-generated stories will remain in the margins, limited to producing more and more little league write-ups and formulaic earnings previews. Hammond was recently asked for his reaction to a prediction that a computer would win a pulitzer Prize within 20 years. It would happen, he said, in five. Hammond was raised in Utah, where his archaeologist dad taught at a state university. He grew up thinking he'd become a lawyer. But in the late 1980s, as an undergraduate at Yale, he fell under strange the sway. Roger Schank, a renowned artificial intelligence researcher and chair of the computer science department. After earning a doctorate in computer science, hammond was hired by the University of Chicago to lead a new ai lab.
Narrative science's cto and cofounder, Kristian Hammond, works in a small office just a few feet away from the buzz of coders and engineers. To hammond, these stories are only the first step toward what will eventually become a news universe dominated by computer-generated stories. Last year at a small conference of journalists and technologists, i asked Hammond to predict what percentage of news would be written by computers in 15 years. At first he tried to duck the question, but with some prodding he sighed and gave in: "More than 90 percent.". That's when I decided to write this article, hoping to finish it before being scooped by a macbook air. Hammond assures me i have nothing to worry about. This robonews tsunami, he insists, will not wash away the remaining human reporters who still collect paychecks.
Niche news services hire narrative science to write updates for their subscribers, be they sports fans, small-cap investors, or fast-food franchise owners. And the articles don't read like robots wrote them: Friona plan fell 10-8 to boys Ranch in five innings on Monday at Friona despite racking up seven hits and eight runs. Friona was led by a flawless day at the dish by hunter Sundre, who went 2-2 against boys Ranch pitching. Sundre singled in the third inning and tripled in the fourth inning. Friona piled up the steals, swiping eight bags in all. Ok, it's not Roger Angell. But the grandparents of a little leaguer would find this game summary—available on the web even before the two teams finished shaking hands—as welcome as anything on the sports pages.
A story we never thought we'd write
Had, narrative science a company that trains computers to write news stories—created this piece, it probably would not mention that the company's Chicago headquarters lie only a long baseball toss from the Tribune newspaper building. Nor would it dwell on the fact that this potentially job-killing technology was incubated in part at Northwestern's. Medill School of journalism, media, integrated Marketing Communications. Those ironies are obvious to a human. But not to a computer. Also in this issue, at least not yet. For now consider this: every 30 seconds or so, the algorithmic bull pen of Narrative science, a 30-person company occupying a large room on the fringes of the Chicago loop, extrudes a story whose very byline is a question writing of philosophical inquiry. The computer-written product could be a pennant-waving second-half update of a big Ten basketball contest, a sober preview of a corporate earnings statement, or a blithe summary of the presidential horse race drawn from Twitter posts. The articles run on the websites of respected publishers like forbes, as well as other Internet media powers (many of which are keeping their identities private).