Related characters edit descendants and related characters in interests the latin alphabet edit z with diacritics : ź ź ž ž ż ż ẓ ẓ ƶ ƶ ß : German letter regarded as a ligature of long s (ſ) and short s, called scharfes. (In some typefaces and handwriting styles it is rather a ligature of long s and tailed z (ſʒ).) : Latin letter z with a hook, intended for the transcription of Middle high German, for instances of the letter z with a sound value of /s/. : Latin letter Z with swash tail Ʒ ʒ : Latin letter ezh : Visigothic z ipa -specific symbols related to Z: ʒ ʑ ʐ ɮ u1D22 ᴢ latin letter small capital z is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet 13 Modifier letters are used. On German typewriter- and computer keyboards (in comparison to those used in the uk/us the positions of the letters z and y are swapped. (In German, y is only used in loanwords and names.) Other representations edit see also edit references edit a b "z oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989 merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, unabridged (1993 "zee. One early use of "zee lye, thomas (1969) 2nd., london, 1677. A new spelling book, 1677. Menston, (Yorks.) Scolar. Zee za-cha-ry, zion, zeal michael Chugani.
Among non-European languages that have adopted the latin alphabet, z usually stands for z, such as in azerbaijani, igbo, indonesian, shona, swahili, tatar, turkish, and Zulu. Z represents dz in Northern Sami and Inari sami. In Turkmen, z represents. In the kunrei-shiki and Hepburn romanisations of Japanese, z stands for a phoneme whose allophones include z and. Other systems edit a graphical variant of z is ʒ, which has been adopted into the International Phonetic Alphabet as the sign for the voiced postalveolar fricative. Other uses edit In mathematics, u2124 (double-struck capital z) is used to denote the set of integers. Originally, was just a handwritten version of the bold capital z used in printing but, over time, it has come to be used more frequently homework in printed works too. In chemistry, the letter z is used to denote the proton ( atomic ) number of an element, such as Z 3 ( Lithium ).
In Basque, it represents the sound / s /. In Danish, norwegian, and Swedish, z usually stands for the sound /s/ and thus shares the value of s; it normally occurs only in loanwords that are spelt with z in the source languages. The letter z on its own represents / z / in Polish. It is also used in four of the seven officially recognized digraphs: cz tʂ dz dz / or / ts rz ʐ / or / ʂ sometimes it represents a sequence /rz and sz ʂ and is the most frequently used of the consonants. (Other Slavic languages avoid digraphs and mark the corresponding phonemes with the háček (caron) accent: č, ď, ř, š; this system has its origin in czech orthography of the hussite period.) Two more polish digraphs include z with diacritical marks, as accent and dot:. Z can also appear alone with diacritical marks, namely ź. Similarly, hungarian uses z in the digraphs sz (expressing / s as opposed to the value of s, which is ʃ and zs (expressing ʒ).
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Few words in the basic English vocabulary begin with z, though it occurs in words beginning with other letters. It is the least frequently used letter in written English. 10 It is more common in American English than in British English, due to the endings -ize vs -ise and -ization vs -isation, where the American spelling is derived essay from Greek and the British from French. Z is more common in the Oxford spelling of British English, as this variant prefers the more etymologically 'correct' -ize endings to -ise endings; however, -yse is preferred over -yze in Oxford spelling, as it is closer to the original Greek roots of words like. One native germanic English word that contains 'z freeze (past froze, participle frozen ) came to be spelled that way by convention, even though it could have been spelled with 's' (as with choose, chose and chosen ). Z is used in writing to represent the act of sleeping (sometimes using multiple z's like zzzz ).
It is used because closed-mouth human snoring often sounds like the pronunciation of this letter. Citation needed Other languages edit z stands for a voiced alveolar or voiced dental sibilant / z in Albanian, breton, czech, dutch, french, hungarian, latvian, lithuanian, romanian, serbo-Croatian, slovak, and the International Phonetic Alphabet. It stands for / ts / in Chinese pinyin, finnish (occurs in loanwords only and German, and it likewise expressed /ts/ in Old Norse. In Italian, it represents two phonemes, / ts / and / dz /. Castilian Spanish uses the letter to represent / θ / (as English th in thing though in other dialects ( Latin American, andalusian ) this sound has merged with / s /. In Portuguese, it stands for / z / in most cases, but also for / s / or / ʃ / (depending on the regional variant) at the end of syllables.
7 Last letter of the alphabet edit In earlier times, the English alphabets used by children terminated not with Z but with or related typographic symbols. Ovel Adam Bede, george Eliot refers to z being followed by when her character Jacob Storey says, "He thought it Z had only been put to finish off th' alphabet like; though ampusand would ha' done as well, for what he could see." 9 Some. The last letter for the Icelandic, finnish and Swedish alphabets is ö, while it is Å for Danish and Norwegian. In the german alphabet, the umlauts ( Ä/ä, ö/ö, and Ü/ü ) and the letter ß ( Eszett or scharfes S ) are regarded respectively as modifications of the vowels a/o/u and as a (standardized) variant spelling of ss, not as independent letters, so they. The german alphabet ends with. Variant and derived forms edit a glyph variant of z originating in the medieval Gothic minuscules and the early modern Blackletter typefaces is the "tailed z" (German geschwänztes z, also z mit Unterschlinge ).
In some Antiqua typefaces, this letter is present as a standalone letter or in ligatures. Ligated with long s (ſ it is part of the origin of the Eszett (ß) in the german alphabet. The character ezh (Ʒ) resembles a tailed. Unicode assigns codepoints U2128 black-letter capital z (html 8488 and U1D537 mathematical fraktur small z (html 120119 in the letterlike symbols and Mathematical alphanumeric symbols ranges respectively. Z in a sans serif typeface There is also a variant with a stroke. Use in writing systems edit English edit In modern English orthography, the letter z usually represents the sound /z/. It represents /ʒ/ in words like seizure. More often, this sound appears as su or si in words such as measure, decision, etc. In all these words, /ʒ/ developed from earlier /zj/ by yod -coalescence.
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Early English edit early English used s alone for both the unvoiced and the voiced sibilant. The latin sound imported through French was new and was not written with Z but with g. The successive changes can be well seen in the double forms from the same original, jealous book and zealous. Both of these come from a late latin zelosus, derived from the imported Greek ζλος zêlos. The earlier form is jealous ; its initial sound is the dʒ, which developed to modern French. John Wycliffe wrote the word as gelows or ielous. Z at the end of a word was pronounced ts, as in English assets, from Old French asez "enough" ( Modern French assez from Vulgar Latin ad satis to sufficiency.
Because the sound /z/ in Latin changed to /r/ by rhotacism in the fifth century bc, z was dropped and its place given to the new letter. In the 1st century bc, z was reintroduced at the end of the latin alphabet to represent the sound of the Greek zeta /dz as the letter y was introduced to represent the sound of the Greek upsilon /y/. 5 Before the reintroduction of z, the sound of zeta was written s at the beginning of words and ss in the middle of words, as in sōna for ζώνη "belt" and trapessita for τραπεζίτης "banker". In Vulgar Latin orthography, z represented a sound, likely an affricate, formed by the merging of the reflexes of Classical Latin / j /dj/ and /gj example needed for example, zanuariu for ianuariu "January ziaconus for diaconus "deacon and oze for hodie "today". 6 likewise, /di/ sometimes replaced / z / in words like baptidiare for baptizare "to baptize". In modern Italian, z represents / ts / or / dz whereas the reflexes of ianuarius and hodie are written with the letter g (representing /dʒ/ when before write i and e gennaio, oggi. In other languages, such as Spanish, further evolution of the sound occurred.
zayin ( and the Greek inscriptional form remained in this shape throughout ancient times. The Greeks called it zeta, a new name made in imitation of eta (η) and theta (θ). In earlier Greek of Athens and Northwest Greece, the letter seems to have represented / dz in Attic, from the 4th century bc onwards, it seems to have stood for /zd/ and / dz / there is no consensus concerning this issue. 4 In other dialects, such as Elean and Cretan, the symbol seems to have been used for sounds resembling the English voiced and voiceless th (ipa / ð / and / θ respectively). In the common dialect ( koine ) that succeeded the older dialects, ζ became / z as it remains in modern Greek. Etruscan edit The Etruscan letter Z was derived from the Phoenician alphabet, most probably through the Greek alphabet used on the island of Ischia. In Etruscan, this letter may have represented / ts /. Latin edit The letter z was part of the earliest form of the latin alphabet, adopted from Etruscan.
This dates from the mid-18th century and probably derives from. Occitan izèda or the, french ézed, whose reconstructed Latin form would be *idzēta, 1 perhaps a, vulgar Latin form with a prosthetic vowel. Its variants are still used in Hong Kong English although they are usually seen as mispronunciations. 3 Other languages spell the letter's name in a similar way: zeta in Italian, basque, spanish, and Icelandic (no longer part of its alphabet but found in personal names zê in Portuguese, report zäta in Swedish, zæt in Danish, zet in Dutch, indonesian, polish, romanian, and. Several languages render it as / ts / or /. Zeta /tsetɑ/ or /tset/ in Finnish. In Standard Chinese pinyin, the name of the letter z is pronounced tsɨ, as in "zi although the English zed and zee have become very common. In Esperanto, the name of the letter z is pronounced /zo/. History edit semitic edit The semitic symbol was the seventh letter, named zayin, which meant "weapon" or "sword".
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This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For other uses, see. Z ( named zed /zɛd/ or zee /zi/ 1 ) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the, iso basic Latin alphabet. Contents, name and pronunciation edit, in most English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, canada, india, ireland, new zealand, and Australia, the letter's name is zed /zɛd/, reflecting its derivation from the. Greek zeta (this dates to latin, which borrowed x, y, and Z from Greek, along with their names but. American English its name is zee /zi/, analogous to the names for b, c, d, etc., and deriving from a late 17th-century English dialectal form. 2, another English dialectal form is izzard /ɪzərd/.