All savages are cruel, and it is not their customs that tend in this direction; their cruelty is the result of their food." Jeremy bentham edit hippie jeremy bentham : "The time will come, when humanity will extend its mantle over every thing which breathes.". Bentham claims that the capacity for suffering gives the right to equal consideration, equal consideration is that the interest of any being affected by an action are to be considered and have the equal interest of any other being singer,1985. If rationality were the criterion, he argued, many humans, including infants and the disabled, would also have to be treated as though they were things. 32 he did not conclude that humans and nonhumans had equal moral significance, but argued that the latter's interests should be taken into account. He wrote in 1789, just as African slaves were being freed by the French : The French have already discovered that the blackness of the skin is no reason a human being should be abandoned without redress to the caprice of a tormentor. It may one day come to be recognized that the number of the legs, the villosity of the skin, or the termination of the os sacrum are reasons equally insufficient for abandoning a sensitive being to the same fate. What else is it that should trace the insuperable line?
For Kant, cruelty to animals was wrong only because it was bad for humankind. He essays argued in 1785 that "cruelty to animals is contrary to man's duty to himself, because it deadens in him the feeling of sympathy for their sufferings, and thus a natural tendency that is very useful to morality in relation to other human beings. It appears, in fact, that if i am bound to do no injury to my fellow-creatures, this is less because they are rational than because they are sentient beings: and this quality, being common both to men and beasts, ought to entitle the latter. He believed that the food of the culture a child was raised eating, played an important role in the character and disposition they would develop as adults. "For however one tries to explain the practice, it is certain that great meat-eaters are usually more cruel and ferocious than other men. This has been recognized at all times and in all places. The English are noted for their cruelty while the gaures are the gentlest of men.
The nonhuman, on the other hand, were for Descartes nothing but complex automata, with no souls, minds, or reason. 24 Treatment of animals as man's duty towards himself edit john Locke, immanuel Kant edit Against Descartes, the British philosopher John Locke (16321704) argued, in Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693 that animals did have feelings, and that unnecessary cruelty toward them was morally wrong, but. Discussing the importance of preventing children from tormenting animals, he wrote: "For the custom of tormenting and killing of beasts will, by degrees, harden their minds even towards men." 27 Locke's position echoed that of Thomas Aquinas (12251274). Paul Waldau writes that the argument can be found at 1 Corinthians (9:910 when paul asks: "Is it for oxen that God is concerned? Does he not speak entirely for our sake? It was written for our sake." Christian philosophers interpreted this to mean that humans had no direct duty to nonhuman animals, but had a duty only to protect them from the effects of engaging in cruelty. 28 The german philosopher Immanuel Kant (17241804 following Aquinas, opposed the idea that humans have direct duties toward nonhumans.
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The opposition to blood sports became part of what was seen as Puritan interference in people's lives, and the animal protection laws were overturned during the restoration, when Charles ii was returned to the throne in 1660. 22 René descartes edit Animals eat without pleasure, cry without pain, grow without knowing it; they desire nothing, fear nothing, know nothing. — nicolas Malebranche (16381715) 23 The great influence of the 17th century was the French philosopher, nurse rené descartes (15961650 whose meditations (1641) informed attitudes about animals well into the 20th century. 24 Writing during the scientific revolution, descartes proposed a mechanistic theory of the universe, the aim of which was to show that the world could be mapped out without allusion to subjective experience. 25 Hold then the same view of the dog which has lost his master, which has sought him in all the thoroughfares with cries of sorrow, which comes into the house troubled and restless, goes downstairs, goes upstairs; goes from room to room, finds.
There are barbarians who seize this dog, who so greatly surpasses man in fidelity and friendship, and nail him down to a table and dissect him alive, to show you the mesaraic veins! You discover in him all the same organs of feeling as in yourself. Answer me, mechanist, has Nature arranged all the springs of feeling in this animal to the end that he might not feel? — voltaire (16941778) 26 His mechanistic approach was extended to the issue of animal consciousness. Mind, for Descartes, was a thing apart from the physical universe, a separate substance, linking human beings to the mind of God.
17 Tom beauchamp (2011) writes that the most extensive account in antiquity of how animals should be treated was written by the neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry (234c. 305 ce in his On Abstinence from Animal food, and On Abstinence from Killing Animals. 18 17th century: Animals as automata edit early animal protection laws in Europe edit According to richard. Ryder, the first known animal protection legislation in Europe was passed in Ireland in 1635. It prohibited pulling wool off sheep, and the attaching of ploughs to horses' tails, referring to "the cruelty used to beasts." 19 In 1641 the first legal code to protect domestic animals in North America was passed by the massachusetts bay colony. 20 The colony's constitution was based on The body of Liberties by the reverend Nathaniel Ward (15781652 an English lawyer, puritan clergyman, and University of Cambridge graduate.
Ward's list of "rites" included rite 92: "No man shall exercise any tirrany or Crueltie toward any brute Creature which are usually kept for man's use." Historian Roderick nash (1989) writes that, at the height of René descartes' influence in Europe—and his view that animals. 21 The puritans passed animal protection legislation in England too. Kathleen Kete writes that animal welfare laws were passed in 1654 as part of the ordinances of the Protectorate —the government under Oliver Cromwell (15991658 which lasted from 1653 to 1659, following the English civil War. Cromwell disliked blood sports, which included cockfighting, cock throwing, dog fighting, bull baiting and bull running, said to tenderize the meat. These could be seen in villages and fairgrounds, and became associated with idleness, drunkenness, and gambling. Kete writes that the puritans interpreted the biblical dominion of man over animals to mean responsible stewardship, rather than ownership.
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12 13 The philosopher and mathematician, pythagoras (c. 500 bce urged respect for animals, believing that human and nonhuman souls were reincarnated from human to animal, and vice versa. 14 Against this, Aristotle (384322 bce student to the philosopher Plato, argued that nonhuman animals had no interests of their own, ranking them far below humans in dubai the Great Chain of being. He was the first to create a taxonomy of animals; he perceived some similarities between humans and other species, but argued for the most part that animals lacked reason ( logos reasoning ( logismos thought ( dianoia, nous and belief ( doxa ). 287 bce one of Aristotle's pupils, argued that animals also had reasoning ( logismos ) and opposed eating meat on the grounds that it robbed them of life and was therefore unjust. 15 16 Theophrastus did not prevail; Richard Sorabji writes that current attitudes to animals can be traced to the heirs of the western Christian tradition selecting the hierarchy that Aristotle sought to preserve. 10 Plutarch (1. CE) in his Life of Cato the Elder comments that while law and justice are applicable strictly to men only, beneficence and charity towards beasts is characteristic of a gentle heart. This is intended as a correction and advance over the merely utilitarian treatment of animals and slaves by cato himself.
be traced back to the savage stone age from horrible histories, and the idea of a divine hierarchy. In the book of Genesis 1:26 (5th or 6th century bce adam is given "dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon. 11 Contemporary philosopher Bernard Rollin writes that " dominion does not entail or allow abuse any more than does dominion a parent enjoys over a child." 12 Rollin further states that the biblical Sabbath requirement promulgated in the ten Commandments "required that animals be granted. Correlatively, the bible forbids 'plowing with an ox and an ass together' (Deut. According to the rabbinical tradition, this prohibition stems from the hardship that an ass would suffer by being compelled to keep up with an ox, which is, of course, far more powerful. Similarly, one finds the prohibition against 'muzzling an ox when it treads out the grain' (Deut. 25:45 and even an environmental prohibition against destroying trees when besieging a city (Deut. These ancient regulations, virtually forgotten, bespeak of an eloquent awareness of the status of animals as ends in themselves a point also corroborated by norm Phelps.
The animals most often considered in arguments for personhood are bonobos and chimpanzees. This is supported by some animal rights academics because it would break through the species barrier, but opposed by others because it predicates moral value on mental complexity, rather than on sentience alone. 5, critics of animal rights argue that nonhuman animals are unable to enter into a social contract, and thus cannot be possessors of rights, a view summed up by the philosopher. Roger Scruton, who writes that only humans have duties, and therefore only humans have rights. 6, another argument, associated with the utilitarian tradition, is that animals may be used as resources so long as there is no unnecessary suffering; they may have some moral standing, but they are inferior in status to human beings, and any interests they have may. 7 Certain forms of animal rights activism, such as the destruction of fur farms and animal laboratories by the Animal Liberation Front, have also attracted criticism, including from within the animal rights movement itself, 8 as well as prompted reaction from the. Congress with the enactment of laws allowing these activities to be prosecuted as terrorism, including the Animal Enterprise terrorism Act. 9 Contents Historical development in the west edit moral status and animals in the ancient world edit main article: Moral status of animals in the ancient world Aristotle mom argued that animals lacked reason ( logos and placed humans at the top of the natural world.
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For other uses, see, animal rights (disambiguation). Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering —should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. 2, advocates oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone—an idea known since 1970 as speciesism, when the term was coined. Ryder —arguing that it is a prejudice as irrational as any other. 3, they maintain that animals should no longer be viewed as property or used as food, clothing, research subjects, entertainment, or beasts of burden. 4, multiple cultural traditions around the world—such. Animism, taoism, hinduism, buddhism, and, jainism —also espouse some forms of animal rights. In parallel to the debate about moral rights, animal law is now widely taught in law schools in North America, and several prominent legal scholars who? support the extension of basic legal rights and personhood to at least some animals.