Standard score scales report scores in standard deviation units from the paper normative sample's mean. Thus, to interpret standard scores, one must know the mean and standard deviation of the scale on which it is based (Woodcock 1989). Grouping validity One of the important questions that always comes up regarding the validity and reliability of these tools are what are the tests really measuring? Are they measuring a persons intelligence? What about their ability to perform well on standardized tests? Is that alone, another measurement of their intelligence? It is critical to examine the situations around which these tests are given. A person may not have had breakfast, could possible be ill that day or is having a panic attack regarding taking the test. Many factors go in to the test itself.
One item to be cautious of when interpreting is that the scale or ratio may not be even. For example, an 8 year old having the reading level of a 6 year old may show some impairment, whereas a 12-year-old functioning at the 10year-old level might be only moderately behind. Consequently, the difference in functioning between a 19 and a 17-year-old might be meaningless. Percentile scores provide an index of where one stands relative to others on a scale of 1 to 100. A score at the first or 100th percentile does not mean that the person got all of the questions on the test right or wrong. Percentile scores mean that the individual performed worse or better than everybody else in the comparison group. Nonetheless, like developmental scores the unit of measure varies across the range. There is relatively little difference between scores at the 40th and 60th percentiles, but a 20-point difference near either tail of the distribution will be substantial. Standard score scales have the advantage of being indicative of performance relative to others, but the unit of measure remains constant across the range of scores.
Does iq test determine intelligence my essay point
Gardners theory shredder of multiple intelligence (MI) maintains that people often show marked individual power differences in their ability to process specific kinds of information (bukato daehler 1998). Gardner originally identified seven such faculties, which he labeled as "intelligences linguistic: Functions of language musical: Individual have different musical abilities logico-mathematical: reasoning, hierarchical and numerical relations Spatial: Comprehension of shapes and images. The ability to perceive and interpret what we cannot see bodily kinesthetic: Utilizing ones body; control over movements, balance, agility and grace. Intrapersonal: Cognitive ability to understand and sense our "self." Inter-personal: Ability to interact with others, understand them, and interpret their behaviors. Multiple intelligences theory, in a nutshell, is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Recent advances in cognitive science, developmental psychology and neuroscience suggest that each person's level of intelligence is actually made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties.
Interpreting grouping Methods Three common methods for reporting performance on tests are developmental, percentiles, and standard scores. The most common is developmental scores, which are sometimes classified as "mental age" and "grade equivalents although many tests provide age-equivalent scores. Many schools show reaching of goals and objectives by utilizing these types of test scores. The strength with-in developmental scores are that the result is descriptive, meaning it can clearly show the difference in a score. For example hearing that sue has a mental age of seven years, or a third grade reading level, provides what seems to be a vivid picture of where sue stands within the rest of the seven year olds.
Guilfords three-dimensional Structure of Intellect classified intellectual acts into 120 separate categories. These categories are operations dimension, products dimension and material or content dimension. He developed firm convictions regarding the ability of individual difference among people. Guilfords believed that intelligence is much too complicated to be subsumed by a few primary mental abilities and g factor. His systematic theory gave rise to what is known as informational-operational psychology. Information-Processing Informational theorists believe that human cognition is best understood as the management of information through a system with limited space or resources (bukato daehler 1998).
Two theorists that promote informational processing models are Sternberg and Gardner. Sternberg's triarchic theory consists of three parts: cognitive components of intelligence, experience and intelligence, and context of intelligence. They are divided in three major sub-theories: Componential is encoding, combining and comparing stimuli and evaluating one own performance. Contextual is the adaptation to ones environment. The two-facet sub-theory is the ability to process novelty and the ability to atomize cognitive processes. One of Sternberg's most important contributions to intelligence theory has been the redefinition of intelligence to incorporate practical knowledge. As Sternberg insists, real life is where intelligence operates' and not in the classroom. The true measure of success is not how well one does in school, but how well one does in life (Trosky, 1998).". Howard Garner believed that intelligence is the ability to find and solve problems and create products of value in one's own culture.
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If one knows how a person performs on one task that is highly saturated with g, one can safely predict a similar level of performance for another highly g saturated task. Prediction of performance on tasks with high s factors is less accurate. Thus, the most important information to have about a person's intellectual ability is an estimate of their g or mental energy (Plucker 1989). Thurstone's theory is based on seven primary mental abilities. In the area of intelligence, his theory maintains that intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities rather than just the g and s factors. He was among the first to propose and demonstrate that there are numerous ways in which a person can be intelligent. Thurstone's Multiple-factors theory identified these seven primary mental abilities: verbal Comprehension word Fluency number essay Facility spatial Visualization Associative memory perceptual Speed reasoning Thurstone's theory has been used to construct intelligence tests that yield a profile of the individual's performance on each of the ability tests. Guilford's theory includes 150 abilities, arranged in three dimensions: contents, operations, and products.
The psychometric model is a theoretical perspective that quantifies individual differences in test scores to establish a rank order of abilities. There are various psychometric approaches to intelligence. The following paragraphs describe three different theorists and their psychometric model. Spearmans believed that intelligence is a combination of two parts. According to his two-factor theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of g, (general essay intelligence factor) which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts. (Specific factors) or s is specific to that act and varies in strength from one act to another. S is specific knowledge such as verbal reasoning or spatial problem solving. Spearman equated g with mental energy.
the test really measure intelligence and not something else? (b) Reliability; does the test produce consistent measurements? (c) Norms; are the participants being fairly compared? Components that make an intelligence test flawed are (a) poor validity; many intelligence tests are sensitive to social factors in addition to intelligence. (b) poor norms; being compared to people who are different. (c) Inappropriate application; test measures something that has nothing to do with the participants school or job. Theories of Process Psychometric Model Psychometric approach is defined as psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits.
They are used to improve instruction and curriculum planning. High schools write use these test to assist in the students future educational planning. Elementary schools utilize screening and testing procedures to help determine readiness for reading and writing placement. Intelligence can be measured, though imperfectly, by intelligence tests, among them the Standford-Binat Intelligence and the wechsler scales. These tests are intended to determine an individual's intelligence"ent iq ). Intelligence tests usually provide an estimate of global cognitive functioning as well as information about functioning within more specific domains. Compared to measures of virtually all other human traits, intelligence test scores are quite stable. However, the degree of stability increases with age such that early childhood and preschool measures of intellectual function are far less predictive of later functioning than assessments taken during middle childhood. Furthermore, despite their relative stability, intelligence test scores may change as a function of important environmental factors.
Emotional Intelligence and Intelligence"ent (IQ) Essay writing
In reviewing the text, i found the definition of intelligence testing to be very simple; testing used to measure intelligence. Two definitions found. Internet site at m are: (a) A standardized test used to establish an intelligence level rating by measuring a subject's ability to form concepts, solve problems, acquire information, reason, and perform other intellectual operations. (b) A psychometric test of intelligence; "they used to think that intelligence is what an intelligence test tests. In defining intelligence, there has always been the question of whether good intelligence is measured as one phenomenon or if it has many variables that are combined. For example, is it how smart a person is? Or is it a mixture of survival, mathematical, social and other abilities. There are many debates regarding weather measuring intelligence is determined from test scores and results or if it is measured by the person ability to process and problem solve. Uses of Intelligence testing In an educational setting, intelligence and achievement tests are administered routinely to assess individual accomplishment.