Most of the suns energy that hits Earths surface is in the visible spectrum of light. . Although light acts as a wave, that wave comes in discrete packets known as quanta. An atom is made of a nucleus orbited by electrons. . The electrons orbit at varying distances from the nucleus in shells, depending on the electrons energy levels. . That variable energy level of the electron shell is what makes life possible. As life first came into existence on Earth, whether through evolution or being planted here write by our galactic neighbors or from beyond this dimension, there was a trick it learned that made life on Earth possible: it captured the suns energy. . There is more than one way it happens, but they all fall under the category of photosynthesis (except for chemical-synthesizing bacteria ).
In its wave state, the length of the wave determines how much energy it carries. . Radio waves are long waves of er, and the energy they carry is relatively small. . X-rays are short waves, and their relative energy is great. . What is called light has a wavelength between those of radio waves and X-rays. . The sun produces er in a wide array of wavelengths (also known as frequencies; the longer the wavelength, the less the frequency, as the velocity is constant). . Also, the sun shoots out electrons and other subatomic particles at an extremely high velocity. If not for Earths atmosphere and magnetic field, its surface would resume be bombarded with high-energy er and subatomic particles, and life as we know it would not exist. . Earth, however, has a magnetic belt (called the van Allen belt) and atmospheric layers such as the ozone layer that deflect and absorb much of the high-energy er that the sun emits. .
The fortuitous properties of water and carbon dioxide helped set the stage for something apparently unique in our star system. . Today, it is theorized that life began more than three billion years ago on Earth. . For about three billion years, life was largely confined to unicellular organisms, which lived in the ocean. . In order for life to exist, it needed energy, and from the earliest examples we know of, the suns energy was captured to fuel that life. According to todays understanding, stars are fusion reactors, mostly composed of hydrogen, the universes simplest element. . Hydrogen is fused into helium, the next simplest element, in a stars core, and a vast amount of energy is thereby given off. . The processes of fusion and fission involve an atoms nucleus. . When the fusion reaction occurs, energy is given off in the form of electromagnetic radiation er called light when it occurs at particular wavelengths. . Light is still an enigma to science, because it seems to be a wave at times and a particle at others. .
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It is an average star, one of about 200 billion in its galaxy, placed on one of the galaxys outer arms. . Our galaxy is unremarkable, one of perhaps a trillion within range of todays telescopes. . According to todays theories, our star has been burning for about.6 billion years, and will burn for seven billion more before it consumes its fuel and dies. . As our star settled into its life, something happened on a tiny fragment that orbits. . That fragment - a mere mote in the cosmos - is nearly completely metallic, largely composed of iron, but on its surface a thin layer of lighter elements rose and settled. . That layer is relatively as thick as an apples skin, a layer that humanity calls home. .
Eight elements - oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium - make up nearly 99 of Earths crust. . Some even lighter elements ride atop those elements, with an oxygen-hydrogen compound covering most of Earths surface, and nitrogen, oxygen and argon comprising.9 of the atmosphere. . There are merely trace amounts of carbon, sulfur, chlorine, fluorine and some others, with most elements occurring in tiny amounts in Earths crust. Scientists have developed theories, partly based upon observations, which guess what may have happened a long time ago. . The oxygen-hydrogen compound that blankets Earth, known as water, paper would be a gas instead of a liquid, except essays for the peculiar way that water molecules are attracted to each other, due to their electrical polarity. . In the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, which makes up about.04 of the atmosphere. . However, if it were not there, helping to capture the suns energy, earths surface would probably be about 10-15 F colder than today. .
Rapid global warming, mainly caused by burning fossil fuels, is one of the greatest threats that humanity faces today. The wests capitalistic ideology has transformed a traditional deadly sin, greed, into a virtue, and the racketeering impulse has guided the creation of all capitalistic empires. Every significant industry and profession is largely a self-serving racket, and the larger and more powerful the industry or profession is, the more it resembles an outright racket, which I discovered the hard way during my adventures. . I participated in a significant effort to bring alternative energy to the marketplace, maybe the most significant ever. . What happened to the ventures that Dennis lee headed is a case study of how alternative energy is suppressed. Alternative energy has been systematically suppressed, on a global scale, for the past century, and free energy technology has probably existed for a long time. .
Free energy would eliminate the energy industry, help heal Earth, increase humanitys standard of living by a few orders of magnitude, and could end the zero-sum Game that humanity has been playing for the past 10,000 years or more. . The exploitation of energy may exterminate the human species, but it does not have to be that way. . If we wake up and begin caring, solving our problems is easy. . If we stay asleep, we are doomed. . The problem has a lot more to do with integrity than technology or intelligence. . Personal integrity is the worlds scarcest commodity, and it needs to become more plentiful if humanity is to avoid its self-extinction. . It is up. A brief Prehistory of E nergy and Life on Earth Ninety-three million miles away is the star my planet orbits. .
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The west calls that process progress. . The extinction of large, easily killed animals was probably the earliest instance of humans exhausting their primary energy source (although original migrations from Africa might have been due to outstripping energy supplies). . Early agricultural practices also exhausted the lands, although the dynamic of deforestation, farming, and desertification persists to this day. . As the energy of wood was used up, and the resultant deforested lands were devastated by review agricultural practices, other sources of energy were exploited, leading to the fossil fuel revolution, which began with coal mining in deforested England and replacing wood for smelting iron, and. In the late 19th century, oil became the next fuel to undergo large-scale exploitation, and its use coincided with amassing capitalistic, monopolistic empires, significantly by United States robber barons, john Rockefeller most notably. . His oil companies still dominate the oil industry, and fossil fuels comprise more than 80 of world energy production in 2014. . The process of extracting and using fossil fuels is environmentally disastrous. .
About 200,000 years ago, anatomically modern humans appeared. . by about 60,000 years ago, humans improved their weapons technology to the point where they became earths first and only super-predator, and expanded its range across the entire planet. . by about 10,000 years ago, humanity had exterminated all the easily hunted large animals, and the hunter-gatherer lifestyle was no longer sustainable on a global basis. . Domestication of animals and food crops led to civilization. . Domesticating animals, plants and enslaving humans were the significant activities of early civilization, and ideological indoctrination began in those early days, as the slaves needed to be conditioned to accept their status. . The positions of the new elite classes also needed an acceptable justification. . Often the most ruthless and successful elites became royalty. The human the journey has largely been about refining methods of exploiting energy and manipulating the natural environment to human benefit. .
learn to exploit new sources of energy, humankind would still be living with its ape cousins in the tropical forests. . Without the continual exploitation of new energy sources, there would have been no civilization, no Industrial revolution and no looming global catastrophe. All life on Earth consumes the suns energy, originally captured by the process of photosynthesis, except for chemical-synthesizing bacteria. . Millions of years ago, humanitys evolutionary ancestors lived. Africas tropic forests, as did their great ape cousins, and fruit was their dietary mainstay. . by walking upright and making tools, humanitys ancestors exploited new energy resources, such as animal remains scavenged from predator kills. . Early protohumans migrated from Africa about two million years ago, probably following migrating African predators. . They eventually harnessed fire and invented other energy-consuming/preserving adaptations, such as clothing, which allowed them to survive past their natural range in the tropics.
First Glimpse, world, energy Economics, a case history in Alternative energy suppression. Why, is There no alternative energy? The, greatest Energy of All, footnotes. Introductio n and Summary, dear readers: in the summer of 2014, this essay was largely superseded by this essay. . I trimmed book this essay down to reflect that the 2014 essay delves far deeper into many issues that this essay originally covered. . my original energy essay was written around 2001, and could be considered the embryonic version of the 2014 version. . This essay's remaining parts are probably best read in context of the 2014 essay, and many links to this essay come from that essay.
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The Energy racket, the Energy racket,. Wade help Frazier, revised in June 2014, introduction and Summary. A brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early, civilization, Energy and the zero-sum Game. The, rise of Europe and Energy Exploitation. The, industrial revolution and the Science of Energy. The, energy racket takes Shape, science and the "Real World.