Luke follows his beatitudes with an equivalent set of woes, for essay which there is no equivalent in the sermon on the mount. 6:24 But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6:25 woe to you, you who are full now, for you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you will mourn and weep. 6:26 woe, when men speak well of you, for their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. (luke 6:17-19 web ) luke 6:27-30, love for enemies The next section of the sermon on the Plain again reverses the order of two passages as found in Matthew, for here the teaching on not resisting evil occurs after that on loving your neighbour. This is significant, for in Matthew it is important that the teaching on eye for eye (Matt 5:38-42) comes first, in order to establish the link between this teaching and the ninth commandment (Ex 20:16).
Lukes second beatitude, blessed are you who hunger now, for you will be filled (luke 6:21a web) is again very similar to matthews version except as mentioned above. The same is true for lukes third, Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh (luke 6:21b web although in this case, whilst the sentiments may be similar, the words are quite different. . Weeping is a common enough Biblical synonym for mourning and laughter hazlitt is the natural opposite suggested by Eccl 3:4. Moreover, when the captives return to zion and those who sow in tears reap in joy (Ps 126:5 then, for those who marked their departure with tears (Jer 13:17 it is time for laughter (Ps 126:2). Lukes next two verses are 6:22 Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall exclude and mock you, and throw out your name as evil, for the son of Mans sake. 6:23 Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. (luke 6:22-23 web ) They carry similar sentiments in a similar order to matt 5:11-12, but the underlying Greek is significantly different.
Matt 5:3 uses the same word but qualifies it with in spirit so as to preserve the original meaning of Isaiahs. Which carries the sense of humble as well as lowly and afflicted (as in Ps 10:12, Pr 16:19). In Matthew the beatitudes are entirely in the third person, which is normal for Jewish beatitudes ( beasley-murray 1987, 159). However, luke uses an unusual structure for his first three, starting them in the third person and ending them in the second ( beasley-murray 1987, 159). The fourth is then entirely in the second person ( beasley-murray 1987, 159 as is its equivalent in Matthew. . Beasley-murray ( 1987, 159) observes that the question of whether the beatitudes were originally delivered in the second person, as in luke, or in the third person, as in Matthew, has been debated at length, before reviewing a little of that discussion and concluding that. Excepting the differences mentioned above, the sermon on the Plains first beatitude, Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God (luke 6:20b web is very similar to the first in the sermon on the mount (Matt 5:3). Luke then has two further beatitudes, their closest equivalents in Matthew being the fourth (Matt 5:6) and the second (Matt 5:4 in that order.
Sermon On The Plain, The definition and meaning - bible dictionary
Assuming that to be the case, the sermon on the Plain begins to look like a reduced version of the sermon on the mount, re-formulated by jesus for use on a later occasion and under conditions of intensifying opposition. Section by section comparison The following sections provide a detailed comparison of Sermon on the mount with Sermon on the Plain. Luke 6:20, beginning to teach luke 6:20 and its parallel in error Matt 5:2 begin with completely different introductions, for luke has he lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said (luke 6:20a web) and Matthew he opened his mouth and taught them, saying (Matt. Luke 6:21-26, blessings and woes Of the beatitudes in Matthew, the sermon on the Plain has three that concern hardship (poverty, hunger and mourning) and none of those that focussed on positive character attributes (gentle, merciful, pure in heart, peace-making). Moreover, the beatitudes in luke emphasise the physical rather than the spiritual.
Thus Matthews poor in spirit (Matt 5:3) and hunger and thirst after righteousness (Matt 5:6) in luke are simply poor (luke 6:20) and hunger now (luke 6:21). Matthews abstract concepts of mourning and comfort (Matt 5:4) become lukes concrete actions of weeping and laughter (luke 6:22). Whilst the recipients of the blessings in Matthews beatitudes potentially include those beyond his immediate audience (c.f. The use of theirs, αυτων in luke the recipients are the audience (c.f. The use of your, μετέρα). It is notable that when lukes Gospel describes Jesus reading from Isaiah (luke 4:18,. Isa 61:1) it uses the septuagints πτωχοῖς (the same word used in James 2:2 and Gal 4:9).
(luke 6:17-19, web it is notable that the sermon on the mount presents Jesus saying concerning those who call him Lord, lord, but then dont obey him (Matt 7:21) as a warning of a path not to pursue. In the sermon on the Plain, the corresponding saying (luke 6:46) is presented as an accusation against those who have already pursued such a path. This is in keeping both with the sense of conflict we find in luke preceding the sermon on the Plain (luke 5:29, 6:11) and with that incident having a later setting. Summary of parallel passages, the mappings of parallel passages between the sermon on the mount and the sermon on the Plain are summarised visually below. This shows the associations 'in-situ' and, as the same information is effectively repeated in an alternate fashion later on, those with non-visual browsers may wish to skip this section. The colours are assigned uniquely, rather than in pairs, as below).
Sermon on the mount, matt 5:1-7:27. Ch 5: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39a, 39b, 40, 41,. Sermon on the Plain, luke 6:20-49. Ch 6:20a, 20b, 21a, 21b, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35a, 35b, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45a, 45b, 46, 47, 48,. The relative locations of parallel passages in the two sermons are of great interest, for the re-organisation required to derive the shared material in the sermon on the Plain from the sermon on the mount follows a chiastic pattern, except in the removal of the. A1, matt 5:3 B1, matt 5:4 C1, matt 5:6 D1, matt 5:11-12 E1, matt 5:39-40, 42 F1, matt 5:44 F2, matt 5:45 E2, matt 5:46-48 D2, matt 7:1-5 gr, matt 7:12 C2, matt 7:16 B2, matt 7:17 A2, matt 7:18 h, matt 7:21 i, matt. However, the derivation process is not commutative, the pattern of re-organisations required to arrive at the sermon on the mount from the sermon on the Plain may start out following a chiastic pattern, but then fails to fulfill it, due both to the positioning. It therefore seems extremely unlikely that the structure in luke could, by coincidence and through such a tightly structured transformation, provide an appropriate framework for the complex and multi-layered structure of the sermon on the mount. The existence of this one-way chiastic pattern of derivation, from Matthew to luke, argues for the sermon on the Plain being a derivative of the sermon on the mount or at least some sermon on the mount like template.
Bible Iliad The sermon on the Plain
As its customary title suggests, lukes Sermon was delivered after Jesus descended to a level place (luke 6:16-17). However, the word τόπος (topos) more usually signifies a generic place,. Matt 14:35; luke 2:7; 14:22; John 11:48; Rom 9:26; John 20:25, or an isolated place,. Matt 14:13, 15; Mark 1:35, 45; 6:31, 32, 35; luke 4:42; 9:12 (. Its translation as plain in this case is something of an inference from the fact that Jesus has tree just come down from an ρος (oros the same word used in Matt.1. Jesus, having spent a night of prayer on a mountain, chooses twelve disciples (luke 6:12-16,. Mark 3:13-19 after which - 6:17 he came down with them, and dissertation stood on a level place, with a crowd of his disciples, and a great number of the people from all Judea and Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, who came. 6:19 All the multitude sought to touch him, for power came out from him and healed them all.
Hence the good sermon on the mount has the feel of being a presentation of foundational teaching, whilst the sermon on the Plain feels much more like a context specific application. In considering the differences between Matthew and luke, the political implications should not be overlooked. The two gospel writers addressed very different constituencies. With Matthew keen to play up the role of Jesus as Messiah the sermon on the mount was an ideal introduction to jesus teaching that keyed into jewish nationalistic aspirations. Luke, being astute enough to anticipate the potential impact of presenting Roman officialdom with such a subversive political statement, but wishing to avoid the charge of serious omission, had every reason to find an alternative way to present the sermon on the mounts sayings. That he could reasonably have done by cherry-picking them from other, less politically charged, occasions on which Jesus re-used his material. The context, attempting to produce a gospel Harmony suggests luke sets the sermon on the Plain somewhat later than Matthew sets the sermon on the mount (for more on this see. The Emmaus view ).
alone provides no clue whether the envisaged proto-outline was in the mind of Jesus, or an extant record of some simpler sermon, circulating amongst his disciples. Significantly, with the exception of the golden Rule, the ordering of the common material is precisely that required to support the sermon on the mounts exposition of the ten Commandments, a situation unlikely to have arisen outside that context. Moreover, in terms of their relationship to the matthean order, the re-ordering found in the sermon on the Plain provides a chiastic framing for the golden Rule, the only section significantly displaced from its Matthean order (see. Visual summary of parallel passages below at least in terms of the beatitudes, vermes ( 2004, 312 commenting on the suggestion that both sets originated in the same saying, concludes that the more reasonable view is that at least in part luke and Matthew may reflect. Mark matson (2004) notes how some of the more recent solutions to the synoptic problem require the independence of Matthew and luke, whilst arguing that it is reasonable to consider that luke may have been aware of both Matthew and Mark and that he chose. In comparing the sermon on the mount with the sermon on the Plain one can sense that the latter addresses a more difficult situation. Talk of real physical problems replaces talk of their spiritual or abstract equivalents and those who would borrow from you have become those who steal from you (see notes below). Moreover, whilst the sermon on the mount deals with attitudes to enemies and generosity of spirit under the banner of obeying the ten Commandments, the sermon on the Plain makes these its main focus.
This strongly suggests that the two are related, rather than independent collections of sayings composed by different authors. However, establishing the nature of that relationship from the sermons themselves is far from easy. Amongst the possibilities to be weighed are whether: the sermon on best the Plain is lukes summary of the sermon on the mount; the sermon on the mount is Matthews expansion of the Sermon on the Plain; the two sermons were given on different occasions but Jesus. Matthews version is much longer overall than lukes, though the latter nevertheless contains: the longer versions of some parallel passages (e.g. Matt 5:46-47 material found in Matthew but not in the sermon on the mount (e.g. Matt 15:14 some unique material (e.g. Even where the two are superficially very similar, the underlying Greek can be quite different, with quite similar ideas expressed in a completely different fashion.
Luke 6:20-49, the sermon on the Plain - sermon on the mount
Relevance to the sermon on plan the mount. The sermon on the Plain (luke 6:20-49) is a significant passage for those interested in the. Sermon on the mount, for the two show distinct similarities. Indeed, they are similar enough for the footnote on luke 6:17 net to suggest that the sermon on the Plain may be a summary of the the sermon on the mount. However, that footnote offers no comment on whether it was Jesus himself or luke who produced the summary. One occasion or two, there are those who suggest that the sermon on the Plain and the sermon on the mount represent differing descriptions of the one event, a speech delivered from a level place, just below the summit of a hill (see background for. The majority of the sermon on the Plain has parallel passages within the sermon on the mount and in most cases these fall in a similar order in both.